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Arts and Sciences Wall Image Catalog

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Zachariah Chandler (1813-1879) - Zachariah Chandler was one of the most important Michiganders of the 19th Century. Chandler served as Mayor of Detroit, a four-term US Senator from Michigan, a financial supporter of the Underground Railroad, strong supporter of the Union during the Civil War and a Radical Republican during Reconstruction. Chandler went on to serve as President Grant's Secretary of the Interior and died shortly after being re-elected to the Senate in 1879.


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Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) - 16th President of the United States, first Republican President, President during the Civil War. Abraham Lincoln was born in Kentucky and grew up in Illinois, becoming an attorney as a young man. Lincoln entered the Illinois Legislature and was nominated by the newly formed Republican Party as their candidate for President in 1860 after having lost the 1858 Illinois Senate election to Stephen Douglas. After seeing the Union preserved through the Civil War, Lincoln was killed by John Wilkes Booth, becoming the first President to be assassinated. A symbol of persistence and fortitude, Lincoln was born into poverty, twice failed in business, and yet became one of the nation's greatest presidents.


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Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR), was President of the United States from 1933-1945. Roosevelt is the longest serving president in US history, having been elected four terms. He was from a prominent New York family. Roosevelt became President of the US during the great depression. He was stricken with polio in his early thirties. Roosevelt very rarely had his picture taken in a wheelchair, as only two such photographs are known to exist. Also featured in the photograph are Fala, his beloved Scottish Terrier, and Ruthie Bie. The photo was taken at Hill Top Cottage in Hyde Park, N.Y.

Margaret Lynch Suckley took the famous photograph. She was a distant cousin, intimate friend, and confidante of FDR, as well as an archivist for the first American presidential library.

Ruthie Bie was the granddaughter of his Hyde Park caretaker.

Few Americans knew that he was "disabled" and could not walk. He died in April 1945 shortly before the end of WW II.

Roosevelt is known for the New Deal and being President during WW II.


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Amelia Earhart (1897-1937) - Aviator, explorer, teacher, author, advocate for women's rights. Earhart was born in Atchison, Kansas. She grew up during the first generation of aviators and quickly developed an interst in, and later an affinity for, aviation. In 1923 she became just the 16th woman in the United States to be awarded a pilot's license, and in 1928 became the first woman in the world to fly across the Atlantic Ocean. She became a faculty member at Purdue University and continued her pioneering in aviation. Flying on a Lockheed 10E on the last leg of an attempt to fly around the world, she disappeared while trying to fly across the Pacific Ocean in 1937.


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Letter from Zachariah Chandler to Abraham Lincoln, 1861 - Zachariah Chandler was a successful business man, experimental farmer, and lawyer from Michigan. He became Michigan's first Republican Senator in 1859. When the Civil War broke out, Chandler was one of the most vocal supporters of the Union and ardent critics of Southern secession. He wrote this letter to President Lincoln to criticize him for not appointing enough people from Michigan to his cabinet. After Lincoln's assassination, Chandler became one of the Radical Republicans in the Senate and later went on to serve in the Grant Administration as Secretary of the Interior.


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Guardian Building, Detroit, Wirt Rowland, Smith, Hinchman & Grylls, 1929 - One of the best examples of Art-Deco architecture in Detroit, the Guardian Building is typical of office high rises built in the 1920s. Originally built as the Union Trust building, its orange-brown color and unique Pewabic and Rookwood tile make it a very recognizable landmark in downtown Detroit. This picture was taken around 1980 and shows the building amidst the other architectural styles in the city, including the Renaissance Center, Michigan's tallest building, to the left. The building currently houses the architectural firm that designed it.


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Guardian Building Michigan Mural, Detroit, Wirt Rowland, Smith, Hinchman & Grylls, 1929 - One of the best examples of Art-Deco architecture in Detroit, the Guardian Building is typical of office high rises built in the 1920s. This Mural, designed by Ezra Winter, contains symbols of Michigan's main economic staples from the era in which the building was built. The building is one of Detroit's most significant structures and currently houses the architectural firm that designed it. It was placed on the National Historic Register in 1989 and is a central part of Detroit's downtown financial district.


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Hoover Dam, Constructed 1931-1936 - The Hoover Dam is the largest hydroelectric dam in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. Construction on the Dam started during the Herbert Hoover Administration, and it is named after him. It was completed under the Franklin Roosevelt Administration as a massive public works project during the Great Depression. The dam contains enough concrete to pave a two lane road from the east to west coast. 112 men were killed during the construction of the Dam.


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Jackie Robinson - First African-American player in Major League Baseball. Robinson was brought to the Brooklyn Dodgers (now L.A. Dodgers) by then owner Branch Rickey, and played his first Major League game in 1947. Robinson was already an established Negro League player by the time Rickey acquired him for the Dodgers organization. Robinson faced tremendous pressure his first year in the Major Leagues, as many players and fans were adamantly opposed to the nation's past time being integrated. Robinson excelled however, and went on to have a Hall of Fame career with the Dodgers, as he was one of the greatest second basemen of all time. His jersey number, 42, is retired by all teams in Major League baseball to commemorate his significant contributions to the game.


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Louis Brandeis (1856-1941) - Brandeis was born of Jewish immigrant parents from Bohemia, and grew up in Kentucky. He was the first Jewish Justice of the United States Supreme Court having been appointed by President Woodrow Wilson in 1916. He served as a justice on the Court until he retired in 1939. Before becoming a Supreme Court Justice, Brandeis made his name as an advocate for social justice and progressive causes, authoring an influential article in the Harvard Law Review outlining his principles for the right to privacy enshrined in the US Constitution. He also authored the well read collection of essays, Other People's Money and how the Bankers Use it in 1914. Brandeis faced strong anti-Semitic bigotry, including from his fellow justices. In the year 2013, the US Supreme Court has two Jewish Justices, Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Elena Kagan.


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Mount Rushmore - Built between 1927 and 1939 near Keystone, South Dakota by Gutzon and Lincoln Borglum as a monument to American history. The Gutzons carved who they believed to be the greatest Presidents in American history up to that point - George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln. The monument was originally to contain full busts of all four Presidents depicted, but Borgulm only finished the heads and part of Washington's lower bust before abandoning the project due to Gutzon's death in 1941 and a lack of funds. The monument has been managed by the National Park Service since 1933.


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Statue of Liberty - Designed by Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, and dedicated in 1886, the Statue was a gift to the United States from the people of France. It was given to mark the two nations' shared devotion to liberty and stands 305 feet tall in New York Harbor. The statue was cast, dismantled, shipped in pieces to New York, then reassembled and finally dedicated amidst a ticker-tape parade by President Grover Cleveland in 1886. A replica of the statue stands in Paris, facing New York City. It was erected in 1889 by Americans living in Paris as a one hundred anniversary commemoration of the French Revolution. Often called Lady Liberty, the Statue has welcomed generations of immigrants to the United States.


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Statue of Freedom - Designed by Thomas Crawford and placed upon the newly completed US Capitol Dome in 1863 as part of renovations to the building during the Civil War. The Statue evokes the images of liberty and freedom she is meant to symbolize.

 

 


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Telegram from Orville Wright to Bishop Wright - The Wright brothers were among the first to successfully build and fly a motorized, controllable, fixed-wing airplane. Their first flights were in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. This telegraph was sent by Orville Wright to Bishop Wright explaining the duration of one of these first flights. The Wrights conducted several experimental flights between 1903 and 1905, and their experimentations formed the basis for the development of many fixed-wing airplanes.


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Wright Flyer, Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, 1903 - The Wright brothers were among the first to successfully build and fly a motorized, controllable, fixed-wing airplane. Their first flights on their Wright Flyer aircraft were in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, and were captured on rare photographs such as this. The Wrights conducted several experimental flights between 1903 and 1905, and their experimentations formed the basis for the development of many fixed-wing airplanes.


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American Toad (Bufo americanus) - The American Toad is found around much of eastern North America including Michigan. The toad begins life as an egg, and hatches into a tadpole. Tadpoles live in freshwater where they reach maturity in a month and a half to two months. The American Toad is primarily a terrestrial dweller and eats a variety of ground insects, worms, and grubs. Toads live in dark cover and hibernate in the winter.


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Red Eye Tree Frog (Agalychnis callidryas) - Native to the tropical rainforests in Central America. The Red Eye Tree Frog is an arboreal dweller, and hunts at night. Its diet consists primarily of insects. They have three eyelids and very sticky feet, enabling them to move with agility through the forest. The Red Eye Tree Frog is not poisonous; its main defense mechanism is excellent camouflage, hiding itself well amongst tree branches and leaves during the day. They use vibrations and sounds to communicate and for mating calls.


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Golden Toad (Bufo periglenes) - Was a species that lived in high altitude rain forests in Costa Rica. Because this toad lived in a small area near the city of Monteverde, Costa Rica, it was often times called the Monteverde Golden Toad. It is believed extinct, as it has not been seen since 1989. The Golden Toad was a small species, measuring around 2 inches in length. They spent most of their time underground and as such were rarely seen. The exact cause of this species believed extinction is unknown, although scientists believe it may have been from a fungal infection or habitat destruction.


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Poison Dart Frog (Dendrobates azureus) - This species lives in the rain forests of Suriname and Brazil. Its name comes from the secretions of alkaloid poisons that serve as its defense against predators. The frog’s blue color is also a defense mechanism, warning off would be predators. Female dart frogs are larger than males, although males have larger feet. Both sexes possess suction cup toes allowing them to dwell upside down on tree branches. A primarily terrestrial dweller, its diet consists mostly of insects.


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Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) - The honey bee gets its name from the honey it makes by digesting nectar. The honey bee is native to Europe, Africa, and Asia. However, beginning in the 16th century, Europeans introduced them to the Americas, and they have become an important part of the fauna of the Americas since. Honey bees live in colonies contained in hives containing up to 80,000 bees. Only female bees are workers bees, have stingers, and can create honey or pollinate crops. Male bees are essentially flying gametes, their only purpose being to fertilize queen bees, and they die immediately after inseminating the queen. Bees are essential in the pollination of many crops and are therefore extremely valuable to the food supply.


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American Robin (Turdus migratorius) - A migratory bird, the American Robin is found throughout North America. They breed in Canada and the northern United States and live year round in the central and southern United States. The Robin is one of the most common birds in North America and is the state bird of Michigan. In places where they do not live year round such as Michigan, their return in the early Spring is a sign to many of the end of winter.

 

 


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American Woodcock (Scolopax minor) - The American Woodcock is an upland bird found in the eastern half of North America and is the only woodcock species native to this area. They thrive in young forests and consist primarily on a diet of earthworms. Woodcocks migrate at night, flying at low altitudes and spend winters as far south as the Gulf Coast states.

 


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Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) - Found throughout all of North America, the Bald Eagle is an opportunistic carnivore that exists on a variety of prey. Eagles form lifelong mating partners and establish a hunting territory around a source of food that can extend for miles. With a wingspan of 72-92 inches and weighing on average 9-12 pounds, they are considered the largest raptor in North America. Once threatened with extirpation in the Continental United States, protection efforts have succeeded in restoring the eagle to prominence. The eagle is one of the national symbols of the United States and is the nation's national bird.


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Bluebird (Sialia sialis) - The state bird of New York, the bluebird is found throughout the eastern United States and Mexico. The bluebird is a social bird, often times gathering in large flocks. Its diet consists of invertebrates, insects, and wild berries. Because of the bluebird's voracious appetite for insects, they are a welcome sight for many gardeners.

 


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Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) - A species in the salmon family (order Salmoniformes), it is native to eastern North America. The Brook Trout is the state fish of Michigan and lives primarily in cold water streams, and lakes. Brook trout populations are sensitive to changes in water temperature, clarity, and acidity. For this reason conservation efforts are underway to preserve or restore native habitat. Brook trout have a varied diet of crustaceans, insects, frogs, and mollusks.


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Common Loon (Gavia immer) - Loons are found in northern Europe, North America, and in northern Africa. They are a diving species, surviving off fish in both fresh and salt water. During migration, they fly at speeds of 75 mph. The loon is known for its unique sounds, which vary from wails to tremolos to yodels.

 


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Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) - Found in Eurasia, North America, and Africa, the Golden Eagle is a large predatory bird. Like all eagles they are an opportunistic predator. They maintain homes in large territory ranges of up to 77 square miles. The Golden Eagle has a wingspan of 71-92 inches and weighs 5.5-7.2 pounds. Like its cousin the Bald Eagle, females are larger than males. They are the national bird of Mexico.


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Kirtland's Warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii) - The Kirtland's Warbler breeds only in the northeastern Lower Peninsula of Michigan and winters in the Bahamas. Their survival depends on the abundance of young Jack Pine forests in which they build their nests. Conservation efforts are therefore focused on replanting Jack Pine forests where logging has taken place, or preserving the natural re-growth after a wild fire. Portions of Kalkaska, Crawford, and Oscoda County, Michigan are designated Kirtland's Warbler habitat preservation areas. Their biggest threat to survival is in the Brown-headed Cowbird, a species which will lay its eggs in the Warbler's nest.


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Peacock (Pavo cristatus) - The peacock is known for the iridescent bright plume of feathers the male displays as a mating attraction. Peacocks are members of the pheasant family and are native to the Indian subcontinent. They are found in many parts of the world now as they are popular in botanical gardens, zoos, and other captive settings. Male Peacock feathers are also popular for decorative purposes.


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Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) - Ruffed Grouse are a non-migratory bird that have an omnivorous diet. They are easily identifiable in the woods by the car engine-like sound the male emits as a mating call. The Ruffed Grouse is oftentimes mistaken for and erroneously called a partridge, even though the two are different species. It is the state bird of Pennsylvania and lives throughout eastern and northern North America.


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Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) - The most widespread of New World vultures, this species lives from southern Canada to the southernmost point of South America. Sometimes called a buzzard, like most vultures, they are scavengers that feed almost entirely on carrion. Turkey Vultures were at one time a somewhat rare species in Michigan and elsewhere in the eastern United States. However, conservation efforts have brought numbers of this species to levels which make them a common site in this area.


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Walter Reuther, 1907-1970 - President of the United Autoworkers Union from 1946- 1970. Reuther was one of the founding organizers of the United Auto Workers union (UAW) and was also a prominent leader in the civil rights movement. Reuther was born in Wheeling, West Virginia, and moved with his brother to Michigan in the 1920s to find work in the automobile industry. Reuther became a tool and die maker, and, after living in the Soviet Union with his brother, returned to Michigan and became one of the chief organizers of the then newly formed UAW. After being elected president of the UAW, Reuther moved the union into the political mainstream, purging it of its more radical members. Reuther also fused the agenda of the UAW with that of the Civil Rights movement, becoming a major figure behind the 1963 March on Washington. Reuther remained committed to the rights of minorities and workers till his untimely death in a plane crash near Pellston, Michigan in 1970.


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President Harry S. Truman and UAW President Walter Reuther - President Harry S. Truman and UAW President Walter Reuther meeting in the Oval Office in 1952. Truman won the 1948 Presidential election despite being down in the polls to his Republican challenger Thomas Dewey most of the race. Part of Truman's electoral success was due to the support of union voters such as members of the UAW.


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Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1803-1882 - Emerson was an author, philosopher, and one of the founders if the transcendentalism movement. Emerson's transcendental ideas of communion with nature and the search for the divine in the natural world are evident in his poetry and fiction. Emerson was a beloved teacher and a popular lecturer and is one of the most influential thinkers and contributors to American intellectualism.

 

 


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Ben Franklin, 1706-1790 - A key figure in the American Enlightenment, Ben Franklin was one of the most influential of America's founding fathers. He was born in Boston and apprenticed as a printer to his brother. Franklin continued with the printing trade as a young man, but also conducted many scientific experiments leading to the invention of the lightning rod, publication of a farmer's almanac, and the creating of a more efficient stove. Franklin is best known for his political ideas which had a major influence on the American Revolution.

 


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Cornel West (1953 - ) - An American philosopher, intellectual and academic. West was the first African-American to earn a PhD in philosophy from Princeton University. West's work focuses on ideas of race, gender, and the societal roles affixed to these social constructs. In 2011 he became a Professor of Philosophy and Christian Practice at Union Theological Seminary in New York City. West is one of America's best known intellectuals, appearing frequently as a guest on television programs, and in Internet and magazine interviews.


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Michel Foucault, 1926-1984 - Michel Foucault was a French philosopher and historian. He was one of the pioneers of post-modernism. Foucault's ideas on gender, human sexuality, insanity, and incarceration remain widely studied and debated. His work and ideas focused on societal creations of definitions of gender, sanity, crime and punishment, and how these social constructs were used to shape society and render and distribute power. Foucault is considered to be one of the most important thinkers of the 20th century.

 


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John Locke (1632-1704), Painting by Herman Verelst - Locke was an important part of the Enlightenment in Europe, and his ideas had a profound influence on the founding fathers of the United States. Locke grew up in Somerset County, England, and earned degrees in philosophy and medicine from Oxford University. Locke developed many of his ideas on political theory and the human condition during the English Civil War. Of these, his most important and influential were of religious toleration, that all humans are born in a state of nature, and that liberty is the natural state of humans, a state granted to them by their creation and not by government. Locke theorized that given the opportunity, people would organize a government that recognized and protected the inherent rights of people, of these life, liberty, and property. His ideas went on to influence the U.S. Declaration of Independence, and French Revolution thinkers such as Rousseau.


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Simone de Beauvoir, 1908-1986 - de Beauvoir was an influential author of essays and fiction, existentialist and progenitor of modern feminism. Among De Beauvoir's most influential novels were She Came to Stay (1943) and The Mandarins (1954). Both of these books feature characters that call to question morality, sexuality, and gender. Her 1949 work The Second Sex is perhaps her most well known. The Second Sex explores the history of patriarchal oppression of women, focusing on the role played by socially constructed norms of gender. De Beauvoir and the French author and philosopher Jean Paul Sartre were lifelong friends and likely influenced each other's work. Her work remains foundational in its influence on feminism, existentialism, and post-modernism.


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Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), Painting by Rembrandt Peale - Architect, inventor, scientist, and one of the founders of the University of Virginia. Jefferson was one of the most important of America's founding generation and is the author of the Declaration of Independence. He was born in Virginia and educated at the College of William and Mary. Jefferson, like many of the founding fathers, was a wealthy slave owner and used his plantation for agricultural experimentation. He was one of the key American Enlightenment intellectuals. He was the first US Ambassador to France, helped create the US Navy and served as the nation's third President. He died on July 4, 1826 within hours of his contemporary, John Adams.


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Issac Newton (1642-1727), Painting by Sir Godfrey Kneller - Newton was a professor at Cambridge University in England and is one of the most influential physicists and mathematicians of all time. Newton developed ideas of gravity and matter as well as mathematical theories and formulas that helped lay the framework for the modern study of these fields. Newton's theories on universal gravity and motion confirmed that planetary bodies in the solar system revolve around the sun. He also developed experiments on the speed of sound a law of cooling.


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Enrico Fermi, 1901-1954 - Pioneering nuclear physicist - Fermi was born in Italy and moved to the United States with his Jewish wife in 1938 to escape the anti-Semitic laws of the Mussolini regime. A gifted researcher and theoretician, Fermi developed many of the first mechanisms for harnessing nuclear energy. During World War Two, he became part of the Manhattan Project, the United States effort to develop the world's first atomic weaponry. Along with J. Robert Oppenheimer, Fermi's experiments and work helped the US achieve its goal. After the war, Fermi became a strong opponent of the US advancing its nuclear weaponry. His work remains influential in nuclear science and many institutes, awards, and theories are named after him.


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J. Robert Oppenheimer, 1904-1967 - Nuclear physicist and engineer. Oppenheimer was born in California and was one of the most important scientists of the 20th Century. Owing to his role in the development of nuclear weapons, he is called by many, along with his contemporary Enrico Fermi, "the father of the atomic bomb." Oppenheimer became the director of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton, University after World War Two. At this time he also became an outspoken critic of US policy towards nuclear proliferation, and had his security clearance revoked in 1954. Oppenheimer was recognized for his work as a nuclear scientist by President Lyndon Johnson in 1964.


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William Thomson Kelvin, 1824-1907 - William Thomson Kelvin (later Sir William Thomson) was a Belfast, Ireland born physicist. He did his most important scientific work while he was a physics professor at the University of Glasgow in Scotland. Kelvin's notable contributions to science are many. They include the development of an accurate marine compass, the development of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, experimentations with electricity, and the accurate calculation of absolute zero, the temperature at which thermal energy ceases. For this, the temperature scale of Kelvin is named after him.


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Mississippi River Levee Breach, May 2, 2011 - United States Geological Survey image of the breach of a levee along the Mississippi River. Most levees along the Mississippi River are built and maintained by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. Levee breaches are common in certain parts of the river, especially in the springtime due to melting snow from the north and heavy rains.

 

 


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Volcano Eruption, Kamchatka, Russia, November 27, 2012 - There are over 150 volcanoes, 30 of which are active, in the far eastern Russian region of Kamchatka. This is a satellite image of a large eruption in the Kamchatka region.

 

 


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Hurricane Katrina, August, 2005 - Hurricane Katrina was the strongest and deadliest hurricane of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm first made landfall in Florida as a Category 1 hurricane, but strengthened into a Category 5 once over the Gulf of Mexico. This picture was taken as the storm was beginning to make landfall on the Gulf Coast of the United States. By then, Katrina had weakened to a Category 3, but was still a very powerful storm. It caused over $100 billion in property damage and killed over 1,800 people, devastating New Orleans and many communities along the Louisiana and Mississippi Gulf Coast.


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Orchid pollinia (Ludisia discolor) - The black jewel orchid is native to southeast Asia. In its natural environment, the orchid lives on the forest floor and blossoms in late-winter and early-spring. The jewel orchid thrives in humid, warm conditions with low to medium levels of light. This is an electron microscope image of the orchid showing some of its structure.


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Butterfly Eye and Proboscis (Ochlodes spp.) - Butterflies are part of the Lepidoptera order of insects and have four stages of life cycle: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Many species of butterflies exhibit mimicry, the ability to appear as another species for protective purposes. They feed primarily on nectar from flowers, sucked in through the proboscis, an organ which extends from their mouth. This image shows both the eye and proboscis of a butterfly magnified several hundreds of times with an electron microscope.


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Bee Pollen Basket on Rear Leg (Apis Mellifera) - Honey bees take their name from the honey they produce in the hives in which they live. Bees make honey through the digestion process of nectar eaten from flowers. Bees gather pollen on their legs and spread it around from plant-to-plant as they fly around looking for nectar. This pollination performed by bees is essential to many crops that are grown for food and fuel.


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Crab Spider (Misumena vatia) - Crab spiders are a wide ranging species that live in most of the northern hemisphere. They are typically either yellow or white, depending on the color of the flower they are hunting on. This makes them very effective predators. Female crab spiders are typically twice the size of males and ideally consume a substantial diet to produce the best eggs for reproduction. This is a close up image of the eye and mouth structure of a crab spider. It has been magnified several hundreds of times with an electron microscope.


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Germinating Pollen (Sauromatum guttatum) - Pollen is a powder containing the microgametophytes of seed plants. These microgametophytes produce sperm cells, making pollen essential to plant reproduction. When pollen lands on a compatible female cone it germinates, facilitating the transfer of sperm to the ovule or female gametophyte. Pollen is spread from plant-to-plant by insects including bees. This is an electron microscope produced image of pollen germinating after landing on a female cone. The study of pollen is used in a variety of sciences including paleontology, anthropology, and forensics.


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E. Coli - rod prokaryote (bacterium) - This is a microscopic image of E. Coli (short for Escherichia coli), a common bacteria found in the gut of most animals including humans. There are a wide variety of strains of E. Coli bacteria. Most are harmless to humans; however, some can cause serious illness spread through contaminated food. Commonly found E. Coli in the human gut are essential to the production of vitamin K2 and ward off otherwise harmful intestinal bacteria.

 


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Hummingbird feather shaft, barbs, and barbules - The hummingbird is one of the smallest bird species, averaging just 2-5 inches in length and weighing about that of a penny. Their name comes from the sound made from their wings, which they can beat at a remarkable rate of 12-80 times per second. The hummingbird diet includes nectar, spiders and insects. This is a close up image of the intricate structure of the feather of a hummingbird showing the interlocking barbs and barbules. Many hummingbirds get their colors from the reflection of light off the cells of their feathers rather than the color of their plumage.


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Mild fruiting structure (Aspergillus versicolor) - Aspergillus is a genus of dozens of mold species found throughout the world. The name comes from the resemblance of the species to an aspergillum (holy water sprinkler) when viewed from under a microscope. This electron microscope image shows the triangular flowering pattern the mold gets its name from. Molds of the Aspergillus genus are studied extensively and can cause a variety of infections in animals and humans. Aspergillus versicolor is a mold that is commonly found in soils, on food, and in buildings.


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Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-2, DNA virus) - This is an electron microscopic image of the Herpes Simplex 2 (HSV-2) virus. Herpes is a virus that can cause a variety of diseases in humans including cold sores and genital infection. Transmission is through contact with an infected area of the skin. Herpes cycles between active and latent stages and is most commonly spread during an active stage. Like most viruses, once acquired, Herpes cannot be eradicated from the body and is treated with antiviral drugs.


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Female Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus) - The Tiger Mosquito is native to southeast Asia however has spread to many parts of the world, including the eastern United States. They are named for the black and white stripes appearing on their abdomen. Tiger Mosquitoes carry and spread diseases such as the West Nile Virus, dengue fever, and Yellow Fever. They have spread throughout the world on cargo ships and are a very adaptable species, even having the ability to hibernate in the winter and survive snow and sub-freezing conditions. This image shows the antennae and proboscis of a female Asian tiger mosquito.


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Mosquito Compound Eye (Aedes albopictus) - This is a microscopic close-up image of the compound eye structure of an Asian Tiger Mosquito. A compound eye consists of thousands of individual photoreceptor units located on a convex surface, all pointing in a slightly different direction. Compound eyes give mosquitoes and other insects a very wide viewing angle, and the ability to detect rapid and microscopic movement along with the polarization of light. Compound eyes also make it possible to see minute detail human eyes require magnification instruments for.


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Table Salt Crystal (NaCl) - Sodium Chloride is the chemical name for table salt. It is an ionic compound consisting of equal parts sodium and chlorine. Salt is an essential nutrient in humans who must acquire it through their diet. Sodium Chloride is also responsible for the salinity of the ocean, and is widely occurring in nature. Common table salt is used to flavor food and is also used in a variety of chemical applications, as a water softener and road de-icer. Nearly 40% of the world's salt is produced in China and the United States. At 1500 acres, and containing over 100 miles of underground roads, the largest salt mine in Michigan is operated by the Detroit Salt Company underneath the city of Detroit.


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Ibuprofen Crystals - Electron Microscopic image of ibuprofen crystals. Ibuprofen is a commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used as a pain killer, anti-inflammatory and fever reducing medicine. Ibuprofen was developed and patented by the British company Boots in 1961. It is widely used and considered by the World Health Organization to be a core drug as part of its Model List of Essential Medicines.

 

 


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Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Crystals - Ascorbic acid is a naturally occurring organic compound and is a common form of vitamin C. Many animals produce vitamin C naturally; however, humans do not, and must obtain it from their diet, as it is an essential nutrient. A lack of vitamin C in the diet causes scurvy, a rare disease in the developed world that was once common especially among sailors who lacked a diet of fresh fruit over prolonged voyages. Ascorbic acid is produced from glucose by a chemical process, and 80% of the world's supply is produced in China.


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Calcium Carbonate Crystals - Calcium carbonate is a widely occurring chemical compound found in rocks around the world. It is the primary cause of hard water, and the main ingredient in agricultural lime and antacids. The main source of industrial calcium carbonate is from mining and quarrying including extraction from marble for use in food. Calcium carbonate is also the main component of shells of marine organisms such as snails and pearls, and of bird eggshells. This is an electron microscopic image of calcium carbonate crystals.


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Testosterone Crystals - Electron microscopy image of testosterone crystals. Testosterone is a steroid hormone secreted in the testes of males and ovaries of females. Testosterone is the main sex hormone of men who produce 20 times more of it than women. It is responsible for the secondary sex characteristics of males and is important in the prevention of osteoporosis in both males and females. Most vertebrates produce testosterone, and numerous studies have been conducted to measure its production and effect. Studies indicates that men with elevated levels of testosterone are more selfish and aggressive in decision making and are more prone to violent or criminal behavior.


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Epinephrine (adrenalin) and Sucrose Crystals - Electron microscopy image. Epinephrine (adrenalin) is a hormone and neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the regulation of the heart rate, blood vessel and air passage diameters, and metabolic shifts in the human body. Epinephrine is also an important component of the sympathetic nervous system. Epinephrine is used to treat a variety of medical conditions including internal bleeding, anaphylaxis, cardiac arrest, bronchospasm and high blood sugar levels.


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Pyrogallic Acid Crystals - Electron microscopic image. Pyrogallol (benzene-1,2,3-triol) is a benzenetriol. It was a commonly used chemical in hair dyeing, and photo developing. However, due to its toxicity it is no longer in common use, except with some black and white developers. Exposure to pyrogallic acid can be toxic, thus limiting its current usage in industry.

 

 

 


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Progesterone Crystals - Discovered by Willard Myron Allen and George Washington Corner in 1933, Allen gave the hormone its name derived from Progestational Steroidal ketone. It is a steroid hormone involved in menstruation, pregnancy and the development of human embryos. It is the major naturally occurring progestogen in humans. Progesterone is produced in the adrenal glands and ovaries as well as the placenta during pregnancy and is stored in fat tissue. The steroid has been detected in walnut trees and a progesterone like steroid has been detected in the Mexican yam plant. This is an electronic microscopic image of progesterone crystals.


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Caffeine Crystals - Caffeine is a naturally occurring stimulant drug. In its natural form it is a white, bitter, alkaloid. It is found in a wide variety of plants in seeds, leaves, and fruit, where it acts as a pesticide and a memory enhancer of some pollinators. Caffeine is derived from coffee, tea, and the kola nut and is the world's most widely consumed psychoactive drug. 90% of adults in North America consume caffeine daily and it is classified by the Food and Drug Administration as a GRAS (generally recognized as safe) drug.


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Penicillin (antibiotic) Crystals - A group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi, Penicillin antibiotics were the first drugs effective against many bacterial infections and diseases such as syphilis. Like many antibiotics, penicillins work by blocking the division of bacteria. Penicillin is produced from mold when the growth of the fungus is inhibited by stress. Alexander Fleming, a Scottish scientist, is credited with discovering penicillin in 1928, even though scientists dating back to 1875 had observed the anti-microbial properties of penicillin mold. Although Fleming's discovery is considered the beginning of the modern era of antibiotic experimentation, Howard Walter Florey, Ernst Chain, and Norman Heatly were the first to apply penicillin for medical treatment.


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Methamphetamine (Ice) Crystals - Methamphetamine (also called Meth, Crystal Meth, or Ice) is a psychoactive stimulant drug. Methamphetamine is a schedule II controlled substance in the United States and on the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances treaty. The meth crystals here are in the form of hydrochloride salt. In low doses, methamphetamine increases alertness and reduces fatigue. In high doses it can produce euphoria by releasing a high level of dopamine in the brain. Methamphetamine is highly addictive and can cause considerable psychological and physical harm including overdose.


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Saturn's Rings - Saturn is the second largest planet in the Solar System, the sixth from the Sun, and, along with Jupiter, Neptune, and Uranus, one of the gas giants. Saturn is not entirely made up of gas however. It is believed the planet has a core made of iron and nickel surrounded by a layer of metallic hydrogen, liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. Saturn's yellowish color comes from ammonia crystals prominent in its upper atmosphere. Saturn is identifiable by the eleven rings surrounding the planet, nine of which are continuous. The rings are made up of particles, some very large including ice and rocks, trapped in the planet's gravitational pull.


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Lunar Crater - Earth's only satellite, the moon, is believed to have formed from a massive collision of Earth with an object the size of planet Mars. The debris created from this event eventually coalesced due to gravity and formed into orbit around the Earth. Unlike Earth, the moon has only a very thin atmosphere and very little surface gravity. This makes it prone to bombardment with asteroids. The moon is also the only planetary body other than Earth to be visited by humans as part of the Apollo missions of the 1960s and 1970s. Many of the moon's craters are large enough to be seen from Earth without the aid of a telescope.


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Coronal Mass Ejection, September 14, 1999 - The Sun is a medium-sized star and is the center of the solar system, as all planets orbit around it. Like all stars, the sun is a massive body of energy resulting in nuclear fusion reactions. Space telescopes have captured many photographs of the sun, including this one, which shows the ejection of coronal plasma during a sun spot event. Coronal mass ejections can result in elevated levels of solar radiation reaching the earth. While these radiation events are harmless to humans, they can result in temperature changes on Earth and disruption of low-Earth orbit satellite function.


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Gravity of the Moon's Dust - The moon is the only natural satellite of Earth. It is believed to have formed as a result of a collision between Earth and a Mars-sized planetary body around 4.5 billion years ago. The inner core is made of solid iron with the outer made of liquid iron. The moon's crust is on average 25km thick and is made primarily of anorthosite, an igneous rock which is also found throughout Earth. The moon's gravitational field has been measured by instruments aboard space probes orbiting the satellite. The gravity of the moon impacts Earth by causing the tides in the ocean.


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Jupiter - Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun in the solar system. It is the largest planet in diameter and has the mass of 2.5 times that of all other planets in the solar system combined. Like Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus, Jupiter is considered a gas giant; its atmosphere is mostly hydrogen and helium, although like the other gas giant planets it likely has a solid core. Jupiter is known to have at least 67 moons, the largest of which, Ganymede, has a diameter greater than Mercury. Space probes have been sent to fly by Jupiter and have taken many photographs of the planet. The Great Red Spot is a large hurricane-like storm in the planet's atmosphere that has been observed for over 200 years.


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Galileo Galilei - Galileo (1564-1642) was an Italian astronomer and physicist known for his major contributions to the scientific revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries. Galileo contributed to a better understanding of astronomy by confirming many of the ideas of Copernicus, including the rotation of the planets around the Sun. Galileo's astronomical contributions also include the observation of the phases of Venus, sunspots, and the discovery of four of Jupiter's moons, Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, thus named the Galilean moons. He is considered the father of modern astronomy.


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Frederick Douglass - Frederick Douglass was born a slave in 1818 in Talbot County, Maryland. Douglass escaped Maryland, and slavery, later settling in New Bedford, Massachusetts with his wife, Anna-Murray Douglass. He would become a leading abolitionist, and traveled through Ireland and Britain gaining support for the cause, and eventually, his legal freedom. After the Civil War, Douglass continued to be active in the movement for black equality and became a leading advocate for women's suffrage. He was well known throughout his life for his profound oratory, captivating audiences with his diction. Douglass is also remembered by his own life story, written down in his Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. Later in life he was also a major supporter of worker's rights and fought for American labor unions to end their policies of segregation. Douglass died in 1895 at the age of 77.


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George Washington Carver - Carver was born into slavery in Mississippi around 1864. He was a scientist, inventor and educator. Carver's experimentations with the peanut, cotton, sweet potatoes, and soybeans made lasting contributions to the improved cultivations of these crops. He attended college in Indianola, Iowa, and later became both the first black student and faculty member at the Iowa State Agricultural College in Ames, Iowa. Carver is well known for a long career as an educator at Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama. He was invited there by Booker T. Washington and went on to head the Agricultural Department. Carver stayed at Tuskegee for 47 years. While there he developed a mobile classroom and conducted many of his major agricultural experiments. He died at the age of 78 in 1943.


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Erasmus - Erasmus (1466-1526) was a Dutch Catholic Priest and theologian. Erasmus lived during the European Renaissance and the beginning of the Protestant Reformation. A theologian who emphasized free will as opposed to the Protestant doctrine of predestination, Erasmus remained a Catholic priest despite recognizing the legitimacy of some criticisms of the Catholic Church. He believed in reforming the Church from within, and thus distanced himself from early Protestant theologians such as Martin Luther. This painting is from Hans Holbein the Younger, a German painter of the Northern Renaissance tradition recognized as one of the greatest portrait artists of the 16th century.


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President Lyndon B. Johnson and Martin Luther King, Jr. - Lyndon Baines Johnson was the 36th President of the United States. Johnson became President after John F. Kennedy's assassination in Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. In the remainder of Kennedy's term Johnson served out, he tried to complete some of his predecessor's initiatives, and signed into law the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964. Here Johnson is meeting with Martin Luther King Jr. King was the leader of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), an important civil rights organization in the 1960s. King and other civil rights leaders pushed the President to sign the Civil Rights Act of 1964 as well as the Voting Rights Act of 1965, two important parts of Johnson's legacy. Facing growing opposition to the Vietnam War, Johnson did not seek reelection in 1968, retiring from politics and public office. Johnson died in 1973 at the age of 64. King was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968 at the age of 39.


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Potato Starch Grains - Potatoes are an edible tuber, and are the fourth largest crop in the world. Now an important part of the diet of many cultures, they are one of the oldest domesticated plants, having been first cultivated in Peru and Bolivia 7,000 to 10,000 years ago. The potato was introduced to Europe and North America 400 years ago after the Spanish colonization of South America. There are now over 1,000 varieties of potatoes, but nearly all of these trace their origin to a single type grown in Peru during the early-domestication period. This is a close up image of starch grains from the potato plant.


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Broccoli differentiating apical meristem - Broccoli is a plant native to the Italian Peninsula believed to have been first cultivated by the Romans. It is a member of the cabbage family and its Italian name refers to the cabbage like appearance of the crown of the plant. Broccoli was first introduced in the United States by Italian immigrants in the early part of the twentieth century and now forms an important part of many American dishes. The plant is high in Vitamin C and dietary fiber. This is a close up image of broccoli differentiating apical meristem, a process of embryogenesis of the plant.


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Remnants of Ancient Streambed on Mars - Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun. It is smaller than the Earth and it is speculated that the planet may have once contained conditions hospitable to life, although as of yet, no evidence of life, past or present, has been discovered. Multiple unmanned probes have been sent to Mars, including the recent National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) rover, Curiosity. Curiosity is equipped with scientific equipment to study the Martian soil. This is an image taken from Curiosity that shows what scientists believe to be an ancient streambed. Images such as this provide evidence that liquid water existed on Mars in the past. It is believed the planet's polar caps contain vast quantities of frozen water.


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Mars Mount Sharp Panorama in Raw Colors - The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched the Mars Curiosity Rover on November 26, 2011. The unmanned spacecraft the size of an automobile was sent to the planet to explore in and around the Gale Crater. After a 563,000,000km journey, Curiosity arrived at its destination location on the planet August 6, 2012. Since being on Mars, the rover has taken samples of Martian soil and pictures of the geography. This is a picture taken by Curiosity of Mount Sharp, a feature of the Martian surface nearby Curiosity. NASA scientists leave some of the photos from curiosity in the raw colors they were taken in, while others are adjusted to look like they would appear in natural light on Earth. Like Earth, Mars has an atmosphere. However, unlike Earth, the Martian atmosphere consists of mostly of Carbon Dioxide.


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Buckyballs Floating in Interstellar Space - A bucky-ball is the more commonly used name for a spherical Buckminsterfullerene molecule. A fullerene molecule has a structure similar in appearance to a soccer ball and consists of 20 hexagons and 12 pentagons with a carbon atom at each vertex of each polygon and a bond along each polygon edge. Harold Kroto, James R. Heath, Sean O’Brien, Robert Curl, and Richard Smalley were the first scientist to generate a bucky-ball, and Curk, Kroto, and Smalley shared a 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their discovery. Their work has led to the study of fullerenes. This image shows the relation of Buckminsterfullerene molecules with other objects and also exhibits the use of computers to help display scientific principles.


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Mars Panoramic View from Rocknest - The Mars Curiosity Rover is the latest unmanned space exploration vehicle sent by NASA to explore Mars. Curiosity arrived on the planet in August 2013 and has since sent back to Earth many color images of its surrounding environment. The surface of Mars is very dry and very cold. Mars has a thin atmosphere, making the surface vulnerable to solar radiation. The planet is also very windy, with massive dust storms shaping the surface. It is possible liquid water once existed on the planet; however, due to the low atmospheric pressure, it is unlikely surface water currently exists for any length of time. Rocknest is the name of the location of the Curiosity Rover when it took the images to create this photo. NASA uses images sent to Earth from the rover to study the surface of the planet.


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Mars - Mount Sharp - Curiosity is unmanned spacecraft the size of an automobile that was sent to Mars to explore in and around the Gale Crater. After a 563,000,000km journey, Curiosity arrived at its destination location on August 6, 2012. Curiosity has sent back to Earth many pictures of the landscape surrounding the vehicle. This is a picture taken by Curiosity of Mount Sharp, a feature of the Martian surface nearby the rover. NASA scientists study the photographs sent from Mars in order to determine features of the planet and to consider where to direct Curiosity. The colors on this photograph have been adjusted to show how the landscape would appear in natural Earth light.


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Cosmic Gas Cloud - A star is created out of the existence of huge gas and dust clouds in the cosmos, called nebulae. In the denser regions of these clouds gravitational collapse occurs; particles randomly bouncing around collide and begin to stick together, forming a giant ball known as a protostar. This increases the temperature and pressure, causing the ball to rotate faster, and nuclear reactions to occur, balanced out by the inward pull of the gravity, preventing the protostar from simply exploding. This protostar increases its spinning, and as more matter becomes absorbed into it, its centrifugal force creates a central sphere and a surrounding disk of matter. This sphere eventually becomes a star.


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President Gerald Ford - Gerald R Ford is the only President of the United States to have come from Michigan. Ford grew up in Grand Rapids and went to school at the University of Michigan. He was a decorated veteran of the Second World War and entered Congress representing the west side of the Lower Peninsula for many years. Ford rose to prominent leadership positions within the Republican Party, eventually becoming the House Minority Leader in 1965. When Vice President Spiro Agnew was forced to resign, President Nixon nominated Ford as his new Vice President. Nixon himself resigned amidst the Watergate scandal in 1974, and Ford became President. Known for his honesty and down-to-earth demeanor, Ford restored confidence in the White House. He died in 2006 at the age of 93, having lived the longest of any U.S. President, and is buried at the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Museum in Grand Rapids.


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President John F. Kennedy Addressing the American University in Washington, DC - John Fitzgerald Kennedy is pictured here giving a speech at the American University in Washington. Kennedy was one of Joseph Kennedy's nine children, most of who rose to prominence in their own right. John attended Harvard and enlisted in the Navy during World War Two after receiving a medical disqualification from the Army. After a distinguished record of service in the war, Kennedy entered politics. He was elected to the Senator from Massachusetts in 1952, and in 1960 won a very close Presidential election against the incumbent Vice President, Richard Nixon. In doing so, Kennedy became the first, and to this date, the only Roman Catholic to hold the office of the Presidency. Kennedy served less than one term in office, as he was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. Kennedy is laid to rest at Arlington National Cemetery.


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Michigan Governor G. Mennen Williams with Massachusetts Senator John F. Kennedy - G. Mennen "Soapy" Williams served 12 two year terms as the 41st Governor of Michigan from 1949-1961. His grandfather founded the Mennen soap and personal care products company, hence G. Mennen's nickname of "Soapy." William's best known legacy to the state of Michigan is the Mackinac Bridge, constructed during his tenure in office. Here Governor Williams and then Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts, both prominent Democrats, are pictured at the ceremonial opening of the Mackinac Bridge in 1958. Williams left office three weeks before Kennedy became President, and would go on to serve as Kennedy's Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs. His career in public office ended as the Chief Justice of the Michigan Supreme Court. Williams died in 1988 at the age of 78 and is buried in the Protestant Cemetery on Mackinac Island.


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Governor George Romney and Pennsylvania Governor William Scranton - George Romney served as Governor of Michigan from 1963 to 1969. William Scranton served as Governor of Pennsylvania from 1963-1967. Romney was already well known in Michigan before becoming Governor, as he was the CEO of American Motors Corporation, and a participant in the state constitutional convention held between 1961 and 1962. Elected in 1962, he became the first Republican to win the office since Kim Sigler in 1946. Romney would go onto win reelection in 1964 and 1966. He ran for President in the 1968 election, but did not make it far in the primary process. Ultimately, Richard Nixon won that election and Romney left the Governor's office to become President Nixon's Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. George Romney's son, Mitt, ran unsuccessfully as the Republican candidate for President in the 2012 election.


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Ajax Cleanser - Ajax cleanser was developed and introduced in the United States as a commercial cleaning product by the Colgate-Palmolive company in 1947. This is an electron microscopic image of the cleanser, showing its main chemical makeup of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, sodium carbonate, and quartz. The main chemical compound in Ajax, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, is an odorless salt and is one of the most commonly used chemical compounds in commercial cleansing agents including laundry detergent.


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Lyndon B. Johnson Signing the Civil Rights Act, 1964 - Lyndon Baines Johnson became President of the United States on November 22, 1963 upon the assassination of John F. Kennedy. During his first year in office, Johnson saw through Congress one of Kennedy's key initiatives, a civil rights act. The law was instrumental in ending segregation, as it outlawed discrimination in housing, employment, public accommodations, and education facilities. Here Johnson is pictured with several key sponsors and supporters of the bill, including Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., who is standing directly behind the President. Johnson would go onto win the election of the 1964, defeating his Republican challenger Barry Goldwater.


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Booker T. Washington - Booker T. Washington was born into slavery in Virginia in 1856. After the Civil War, his family moved to West Virginia where he attended the Hampton Normal Agricultural School and the Wayland Seminary. Washington advocated tirelessly for the civil rights of freed slaves in the increasingly segregationist South of the late-nineteenth century. In 1891 he became the head of the newly established Tuskegee Institute. He remained associated with that school the remainder of his life. While Washington was criticized by many of his contemporaries for working within the segregated South, he secretly funded legal challenges to discriminatory laws and practices. He died in 1915 at the age of 59.


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Cesar Chavez - Agricultural workers are among the hardest working and least paid laborers in the United States. They are also disproportionately immigrants, especially from Mexico and Central America. Chavez fought for higher wages and better working conditions for immigrant farm workers. He helped form the United Farm Workers Union with Delores Huerta in the 1970s. The UFW was initially an organization of California immigrant workers; it eventually spread to other parts of the United States. Although union membership dwindled, Chavez remained an important advocate for immigrant and Latino/Latina rights. He died in 1993 and remains an important historical figure in the United States.


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Aretha Franklin at a Piano, ca. 1980 - Aretha Franklin was born in Memphis, Tennessee in 1942. She moved to Detroit when she was a young girl and it is from there her musical career originated. Franklin has recorded many records throughout her life. She released her first R & B hit, "Won't be Long" in 1961, and in 1964 recorded her first pop record, which included the hit single, "Runnin' Out of Fools," released in early-1965. She was the first woman inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1987, and has earned 18 Grammy Awards.


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Sumela Monastery, Turkey - Founded in 386 AD, Sumela is one of the oldest Greek Orthodox monasteries in the world. Throughout the centuries, the monastery has been abandoned and restored several times. Most of its current buildings date from the 13th and 14th centuries. It is located on the edge of a steep cliff in the mountains in the Trabzon Province of Turkey. During the early-twentieth century, it was taken by the Russians during the seize of Trabzon, and was abandoned in 1923. Greek Orthodox religious ceremonies are held their periodically, and it is a major tourist attraction currently under restoration efforts by the Turkish government.


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Boardman River, Grand Traverse County - The Boardman River flows from the headwaters of its main tributaries near Kalkaska to Lake Michigan emptying in Grand Traverse Bay in downtown Traverse City. In the nineteenth century, the river was a major focus of logging activity. It is now a stream popular with anglers as it flows mostly through forested land in the northwest Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Earnest Hemingway frequented the area when he was a child and young man. Hemingway camped along the Boardman River and fished for trout out of the stream. The river's natural flow and habitat are currently being improved by the removal of hydroelectric dams constructed on the river in the early-twentieth century and no longer in use. These photographs were taken near where Hemingway used to camp along the river.


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Ernest Hemingway - Hemingway is one of the most important American authors of the twentieth century. He was born in Oak Park, Illinois in 1899, and spent the summers as a child in northern Michigan. His family owned a cottage on Walloon Lake, near Petoskey, where Hemmingway stayed as a boy. He also spent time fishing nearby lakes and streams, including the Boardman River in nearby Grand Traverse, County. Hemingway published many novels and short story collections while he was alive and had more of his work published posthumously. His short stories featuring the character Nick Adams were influenced by his time spent in Northern Michigan. He lived much of his adult life in Florida, Cuba, and later in Idaho, where he died at the age of 61 in 1961.


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Staphylococcus aureus Bacteria on the Human Intestine - Staphylococcus aureus is a commonly occurring bacteria type found in the human intestine, respiratory tract and on skin. Staph., as it is commonly referred to, can cause pathogenic symptoms such as food poisoning, and infection in wounds; however, it is not always harmful. It is estimated 20% of humans have staph. bacteria as part of their skin flora and in areas of their respiratory tract such as nasal passages. This is a microscopic image of staph. bacteria on the human intestine. Many Americans are admitted into the hospital each year for staph. infections.


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San Juan Puerto Rico Graffiti - Graffiti is a common name for street art, both solicited and illicit. The word graffiti comes from the Italian word graffiato, meaning "scratched." Graffiti is as old as urbanization, with examples as far back as Roman and Greek cities surviving. Some view it as a nuisance, while others recognize it as a legitimate form of expression in a public space. San Juan, in Puerto Rico is known for its street art such as this photograph of graffiti on a garage door.


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Tiger Real, 1963, Salvador Dali - Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dali i Domenech, 1st Marques de Dali de Pubol (May 11, 1904 - January 23, 1989), known as Salvador Dali, was one of the most influential artists of the twentieth century. He was born in the Catalonia region of Spain and had his first public exhibit at the age of 14. Dali was well known through his life not only for his art, considered by many to be among the true masterpieces of twentieth century paintings, but also for his artistic expression in other media such as film, photography and sculpture. Tiger Real is one of his later masterpieces, painted in 1963 and exhibits many of his noted styles, including cubism. These paintings are among his masterpieces and all exhibit multiple elements of his unique style, including Dadaism, cubism, and surrealism.


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The Elephants, 1948, Salvador Dali - Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dali i Domenech, 1st Marques de Dali de Pubol (May 11, 1904 - January 23, 1989), known as Salvador Dali, was one of the most influential artists of the twentieth century. He was born in the Catalonia region of Spain and had his first public exhibit at the age of 14. Dali attended the San Fernando School of Fine Arts in Madrid. During World War Two, he lived in the United States with his wife and returned to Spain after the war. The Elephants, painted in 1948, shows many elements present in Dali paintings, including warm colors and symbolic representation and distortion, in this case, of figures riding atop two grossly elongated elephants.


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Vestiges After the Rain, 1934, Salvador Dali - Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dali i Domenech, 1st Marques de Dali de Pubol (May 11, 1904 - January 23, 1989), known as Salvador Dali, was one of the most influential artists of the twentieth century. He was born in the Catalonia region of Spain and having attended the San Fernando School of Fine Arts in Madrid would develop into one of the most influential artists of the twentieth century. Dali's paintings contain elements of the cubist, Dadaist, and surrealist movements. This painting was created just before the Spanish Civil War broke out. Dali, like many artists in Europe at the time, faced growing pressures from both the political left and the growing far right fascist politics. He would stay in Spain during the civil war but moved with his wife to the United States during World War Two.


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Landscape With Butterflies, 1956, Salvador Dali - Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dali i Domenech, 1st Marques de Dali de Pubol (May 11, 1904 - January 23, 1989), known as Salvador Dali, was one of the most influential artists of the twentieth century. Having exhibited his first showing of work at the age of 14, Dali attended the prestigious San Fernando School of Fine Arts in Madrid. His most active years were from the 1910s through the 1960s. During these years he lived in Spain, France, and during World War Two, the United States. A self-described surrealist, Dali's paintings also touch other genera such as cubism and Dadaism. Dali died in 1989 in his hometown of Figueres, Spain at the age of 84.


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The Ambassadors, 1533, Hans Holbein the Younger - Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543) was one of the best known German Painters of the 16th century. He is recognized as one of the greatest portrait artists of the northern Renaissance. The painting seen here depicts two well known French diplomats at the time, Jean de Dinteville from the court of Francis I, and George de Selve, Bishop of Lavaur. The Ambassadors is one of Holbein the Younger's better known paintings. It contains several important objects or depictions, including two globes, a sundial, a human skull, and the floor textile, patterned after the floor near the high alter in Westminster Abbey in London. Some of Holbein's other subjects included Biblical themes, European aristocrats, King Henry VIII and his son Edward VI, Erasmus, Thomas Cromwell, and Thomas More.


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The Treachery of Images, Rene Magritte - Magritte is one of the better known Belgian surrealist artists of the twentieth century. Many of his paintings, such as this one of a pipe, take simple objects and challenge the viewer's perception of reality. In The Treachery of Images, we see a tobacco pipe with the text, "Ceci n'est pas une pipe" (this is not a pipe). Magritte was very influential to many pop artists of the twentieth century including Storm Thorgerson. A museum devoted to Magritte's work in Brussels opened in 2009 and contains over 200 of his pieces.


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The Niger River - Coursing through parched, landlocked Mali in western Africa, the Niger River flows north through an ancient sand sea before turning sharply east to skirt the edge of the dune-striped Sahara. At the confluence of the Bani and Niger Rivers is an island delta complete with narrows, twisting waterways, lagoons, and tiny islands. This is a United States Geological Survey satellite image of the Niger River meandering through western Africa.

 


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Human Eye with Fungus - Close up image of the human eye. Humans have binocular, stereoscopic vision, meaning both of the eyes rotate around a vertical axis to project the image in view in the center of the retinas. This gives humans the ability to see details of depth and focus on minute detail. The human eye is also capable of distinguishing 10 million colors. Like other parts of the body, microorganisms including fungus are found on the eyes.


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Tete d'une Femme Lisant, Picasso - Pablo Picasso was born in 1881 in Malaga, Spain. He was one of the most influential and prolific artists of the twentieth century, having created an estimated 50,000 pieces throughout his life. Picasso produced a multitude of works in a variety of media, but is most known for his paintings. Along with Georges Braque, Picasso co-founded analytical cubism in the 1910s. Tete d'une Demme Lisant (Head of a Woman Reading), painted in 1906 was painted during the artist's cubist period and exhibits many elements of that style. Picasso died in Mougins, France at the age of 91.


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Dora Maar, Picasso - Born in Malaga, Spain in 1881, Pablo Picasso was one of the most influential artists of the twentieth century. He went through several periods early on in his career, including the cubist. Picasso and Georges Braque are recognized as co-founders of the analytical cubist style. Dora Maar, painted in 1938, exhibits key elements of Picasso's cubism, including the subject matter and colors. Picasso's artistic career lasted near to his death in 1973. He is known to have created around 50,000 paintings, collages, and sculptures as well as mixed media art.


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Henri-Emile-Benoit Matisse (1869-1954) - Matisse is recognized as one of the twentieth century's foremost artists. He created thousands of works during his lifetime and is associated with the briefly lived fauvism movement. Matisse first met Gertrude Stein at her salon in Paris in the early-1900s. Stein, her brothers, and Claribel and Etta Cone were major supporters of Matisse, purchasing hundreds of his works. While his style varied greatly throughout his life, the three paintings seen here are among his later works. They exhibit his reflections on color and were completed near the same time he designed the interior of the Chapelle du Rosaire de Vence, including the windows. One of Matisse's final commissions was the stained glasswork in the Union Church of Pocantico Hills on the Rockefeller estate in New York. Henri Matisse died of a heart attack in 1954 at the age of 84.

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Henri-Emile-Benoit Matisse (1869-1954) - Matisse is recognized as one of the twentieth century's foremost artists. He created thousands of works during his lifetime and is associated with the briefly lived fauvism movement. Matisse first met Gertrude Stein at her salon in Paris in the early-1900s. Stein, her brothers, and Claribel and Etta Cone were major supporters of Matisse, purchasing hundreds of his works. While his style varied greatly throughout his life, the three paintings seen here are among his later works. They exhibit his reflections on color and were completed near the same time he designed the interior of the Chapelle du Rosaire de Vence, including the windows. One of Matisse's final commissions was the stained glasswork in the Union Church of Pocantico Hills on the Rockefeller estate in New York. Henri Matisse died of a heart attack in 1954 at the age of 84.

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Henri-Emile-Benoit Matisse (1869-1954) - Matisse is recognized as one of the twentieth century's foremost artists. He created thousands of works during his lifetime and is associated with the briefly lived fauvism movement. Matisse first met Gertrude Stein at her salon in Paris in the early-1900s. Stein, her brothers, and Claribel and Etta Cone were major supporters of Matisse, purchasing hundreds of his works. While his style varied greatly throughout his life, the three paintings seen here are among his later works. They exhibit his reflections on color and were completed near the same time he designed the interior of the Chapelle du Rosaire de Vence, including the windows. One of Matisse's final commissions was the stained glasswork in the Union Church of Pocantico Hills on the Rockefeller estate in New York. Henri Matisse died of a heart attack in 1954 at the age of 84.


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Jacob Riis, Cigarette Rollers - Jacob Riis (1849-1914) was a Danish born American journalist and photographer. Riis spent much of his life crusading against urban poverty, particularly amongst immigrants. He is one of the first journalists to use flash photography, crucial in indoor settings. Riis lived in New York and while a policeman, he took many photos of people living in squalid conditions, including tenement dwellers. Out of this experience Riis became a champion for the model tenement movement, an attempt to create better living environments for people living in these large buildings. Riis's photography of immigrants also emphasized the home as their place of work and often showed very young children employed in the family's home labor.


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Jacob Riis, Children in Classroom - Jacob Riis (1849-1914) was a Danish born American journalist and photographer. Riis spent much of his life crusading against urban poverty, particularly amongst immigrants. This is a photograph of children in a small schoolroom. Being an immigrant himself, Riis was concerned with the poverty and limited opportunities many immigrants faced in the United States. Riis lived in New York City, home to hundreds of thousands immigrants from around the world in the early-1900s. Much of his photographs, such as the one here, reflect the hard lives immigrant adults and children alike endured in their efforts to realize the "American Dream."


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Jane Lathrop, Jane Addams, and Mary McDowell Washington, DC, 1913 - In the 1910s, women's suffrage, or the right to vote, was a fiercely debated issue around the country. Some states, such as Michigan, amended their own constitutions to allow women the right to vote; however, it was still not legal at the national level. In 1913, a major suffrage meeting was held in Washington, DC to lobby the legislature to adopt a suffrage amendment to the Constitution. In this picture, three prominent suffragists, Jane Lathrop, Jane Addams, and Mary McDowell are in Washington, DC for this convention. The Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution was finally ratified in 1919, ending a decades long struggle to gain women the right to vote.


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Lewis Hine, Girl Mill Workers - Child labor and child poverty were major issues facing the United States in the late-1800s and early-1900s. As the nation industrialized, millions of children went to work in dangerous environments out of economic necessity. Lewis Hine was a pioneering sociologist and photographer. In 1908, he became part of the National Child Labor Committee, an organization that investigated child labor throughout the United States. His major contribution to the committee was his photography of child workers, including those employed in cotton mills such as the girls in this picture. Through his photography, Hine documented hundreds of children in similar conditions and eventually worked as a chief photographer for the Works Progress Administration during the Great Depression. Eventually child labor laws were passed in the United States; however, child labor is still a major problem in developing countries.


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Jane Addams - (September 6, 1860 - May 21, 1935) was a sociologist, philosopher, author, suffragist, and was the first American woman awarded a Nobel Prize. She was raised in a middle class family in Cedarville, Illinois. Addams attended the Rockford Women's Institute and moved to Chicago. After settling in Chicago, she became aware of the poverty immigrant families were living in. Frustrated at the lack of social services at the city level, she sought to create an enriching community wherein immigrant women and children could better their lives. In 1889 Addams founded Hull House, the first settlement house in the United States, with her lifelong friend, Elizabeth Gates Starr. Settlement houses were community centers for immigrant families, and Hull House served the south side of Chicago neighborhood it was located in.


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Katherine Lecke - In August, 1914, World War One broke out in Europe. Many Americans were horrified at the brutality of the conflict. Henry Ford, by then a wealthy American businessman, was a known pacifist, and sought to prevent the war from escalating further. He chartered a ship called the Oscar II, and gathered together a peace delegation to sail to Europe in order to meet with leaders of the nations involved. Many noted American pacifists were on board, including Katherine Lecke, pictured here. Lecke, like Jane Addams, was also a suffragist, and in the 1910s, the right of women to vote was a major social issue. Ford's peace delegation met with many prominent Europeans, but the war continued, and two and a half years after it broke out, the United States became involved.


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W.E.B. Dubois - Dubois was a sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author and editor, and was the first African American to graduate with a PhD from Harvard in 1895. He published The Souls of Black Folks in 1903. He also wrote Black Reconstruction, The Negro, Philadelphia Negro, The Harlem Renaissance, The Education of Black People, and The Quest of the Silver Fleece. He helped found the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) and was a tireless advocate for racial and gender equality his whole life. Dubois died in 1963 in Ghana.


  • Atlanta University, photography by Thomas Askew, ca. 1900
  • Women at Atlanta University, photograph by Thomas Askew, ca. 1900
  • Roger Williams University Teacher Education Students, 1899
  • Two Young Women, ca. 1900
  • Portrait of a Young Woman, ca. 1900
  • Portrait of a Young Woman, ca. 1900
  • Portrait of a Young Woman, ca. 1900
Atlanta University, photography by Thomas Askew, ca. 19001 Women at Atlanta University, photograph by Thomas Askew, ca. 19002 Roger Williams University Teacher Education Students, 18993 Two Young Women, ca. 19004 Portrait of a Young Woman, ca. 19005 Portrait of a Young Woman, ca. 19006 Portrait of a Young Woman, ca. 19007

W.E.B. Dubois and the 1900 Paris Exhibition - Photography was invented in the mid-1800s and by the turn of the twentieth century had become a major expressive media. Professional photographers still dominated during period, as the equipment used to take pictures was expensive, cumbersome, and required ideal lighting. Photography also entailed a development process involving a great degree of skill and the handling of dangerous chemicals. Many people sat for portraits as well as group photos to mark important occasions in their lives.

W.E.B. Du Bois wanted the world to know the gains African Americans had made since the Civil War, as well as their plight as second-class citizens. In 1899 Du Bois worked with researchers and assembled photographs and other artifacts denoting the state of African Americans as the 20th century began. His award-winning "Negro Exhibition" debuted in Paris, France, in 1900. It featured 500 photos of African American communities and individuals, successful black businesses and schools, as well as books and pamphlets by African American authors.


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U.S. Army Soldier - The United States armed forces go back to the formation of the Continental Army in 1775 with the first battles of the American Revolution. Throughout American history, soldiers have been called on to defend the nation from her enemies. Memorial Day in May, and Veterans Day in November call to mind these brave men and women. The Lansing Community College Veterans Memorial is located in the Health and Human Services Building.


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American Pokeweed - Pokeweed, also known as poke, is a member of the Phytolaccaceae family. Pokeweek plants are perennials with coarse roots that typically measure 5-10 feet with a stem that is reddish at its base. The leaves of the plant are toothless and ovaloid, flowers are greenish-white, fruits are berry-like and dark purple to black in clusters and appear in August lasting through November. Pokeweed is found in disturbed areas and waste places through most of United States. The plants have many medicinal uses, as the root poultices are used for rheumatism and bruises, root washes used for sprains and swellings, the leaves ingested as an emetic and used to treat acne. All parts of Pokeweed are toxic. Some researchers believe Pokeweed has anticancer and anti-HIV potential as the plant contains an antiviralmitogen. Juice from Pokeweed may cause dermatitis.


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St. John's Wort - St. John's Wort is a species of the Clusiaceae family. It is a perennial flower with yellow pedals with black spots on edges, usually in groups of five. Stamens are also yellow and are found in bushy clusters. The plant flowers from June through October. The St. John's Wort is a very common flower found in waste areas and open fields throughout North America. The leaves contain antidepressant compounds that regulate levels of dopamine, interleukins, melatonin, monoamine-oxides, and serotonin. The flowers are used fresh in olive oil as a treatment for external ulcers, wounds, cuts, and bruises, and as a folk remedy for bladder problems, worms, dysentery, and diarrhea. St John's Wort contains compounds such as hypericin and pseudohypericin which may have anti-retroviral activity and are being researched for AIDS effectiveness.


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Hemlock - American Hemlock is a species of the Pinaceae family. The hemlock is an evergreen tree measuring 50-90 feet in height with flat, short needles and slender stalks. The needles are green on top, and white beneath, while the tree's cones are small and drooping with rounded scales. Hemlocks are found on hills and in rocky forests; their habitat ranges from Nova Scotia to Maryland and into the Midwest. The bark, needles, and twigs of the plant are used in tea to treat colds, fevers, diarrhea, coughs, and scurvy and also have astringent properties. Tannins in the twigs and leaves are believed to be responsible for all medicinal effects. Hemlock leaves contain some vitamin C


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James Meredith - James Meredith is best known for being the first African American student to enroll in the University of Mississippi. In 1954, the United States Supreme Court ruled segregation in publically funded schools unconstitutional. Meredith had served in the United States Air Force and decided to challenge the segregation at "Ole Miss" by enrolling. Prior to Meredith's actions, the university was strictly segregated and only accepted white students. Meredith's enrollment became a key point in the civil rights movement, as the Kennedy Administration forced the university to integrate. In this picture, Meredith is accompanied by U.S. Marshals and National Guardsmen on his way into the college facilities. Meredith attended two semesters at Ole Miss amidst constant harassment by his classmates. He would go onto earn a law degree from Columbia University and is still active in the civil rights movement.


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James Meredith Telegram - As the first African American student to enroll in the University of Mississippi, Meredith faced enormous pressures, including considerable abuse from his fellow students. This is a photograph of the telegram he sent to the admissions department at the university.


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Sleeping Bear Dunes - Sand Dunes are formed from wind pushing sand upwards into a large hill. The eastern shore of Lake Michigan is dotted with many sand dunes, as westerly winds blowing across the lake pile the sand into massive hills. The Sleeping Bear Dunes, located in the northwest Lower Peninsula of Michigan are the tallest, at 450 feet. Other notable dunes along Lake Michigan are the Arcadia, Silver Lake, Nordhouse, Saugatuck, Warren, Indiana, Whitefish, and Kohler-Andrae.


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Silhouette man in a Canoe - The canoe is the oldest form of vessel to troll the waterways of the Great Lakes. Centuries before Europeans set eyes on these waters, Anishinabe paddlers used the lakes and rivers for drinking water, food, and transport. Birch bark was the preferred construction material because of its relative ease to work with, flexibility and reparability. Canoeing is still popular in Michigan, with most canoes now made out of plastic, aluminum, or wood.


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South Haven Pierhead Light Tower - Lighthouses provide important navigational points for Great Lakes ships. The South Haven Pierhead Light Tower was designed by James G. Warren and was built in 1903, replacing an earlier structure built in 1872. The keeper's house was also built in 1872 and still stands. The tower and keeper's house are connected by a catwalk, one of only four still functioning in Michigan. When the current tower was erected it was located at the shore. Ten years after it was built, it was moved to the end of the 425 foot pier to make it more visible to passing ships. The keeper's house has been renovated by the Michigan Maritime Heritage Museum and houses the Marialyce Canonie Great Lakes Research Library. Both the lighthouse tower and keeper's house are on the National Register of Historic Places and are state historical sites.


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Hiawatha National Forest - The Hiawatha National Forest is one of four national forests located in the state of Michigan. Encompassing nearly 895,000 acres, the Hiawatha is located in two sections in the eastern and central Upper Peninsula. The eastern part of the forest was designated national forest land by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1909. It is one of the only stretches of land in Michigan never homesteaded or developed. It was known as the Michigan National Forest until its designation as the Hiawatha in 1962. The western part of the forest was acquired in the 1920s and designated national forest land in 1931 and was reforested by the Civilian Conservation Corps in the 1930s. Other national forests in Michigan include the Ottawa in the western Upper Peninsula, the Manistee in the western Lower Peninsula, and the Huron National Forest in the eastern Lower Peninsula. Combined with Federal and State forests, Michigan has over 8 million acres of public land.


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Pink Abstract - Pink is a pale, reddish color that takes its name from the flowering plants of the Dianthus genus. Descriptions using the color pink are found in ancient Greek and Roman literature. It was not a color seen very much in Europe until the late-Medieval and early-Renaissance periods when it began appearing in art. Pink was a common color for buildings in the United States during the 18th and 19th centuries, especially in interior color schemes. Many people associate the color with femininity and childhood. It has become a well-known brand name in the United States as well as a symbol used for breast cancer awareness.


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Hartwick Pines - Encompassing more than 9,600 acres, Hartwick Pines is the 5th largest state part in Michigan, and the third largest in the Lower Peninsula. The park is named after Karen Hartwick, daughter of a lumber baron who owned the land. She donated it to the state of Michigan in the 1920s as a monument to the logging industry. 80 acres of the original donation contained old-growth pine, one of the few stretches left in the state at the time. 49 acres of this old growth forest remains. A logging museum exists at the state park; it was originally constructed by the Civilian Conservation Corps in the 1930s. The state park offers camping, hiking, fishing, and cross country skiing.


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Terraced Rice Field, Yen Bai Province, Vietnam - Rice is the staple crop in much of Asia, including Vietnam. Most of Vietnam is hilly/mountainous terrain and tropical rain forest. Under these conditions, farmers must adapt the landscape in order to grow their crops. This picture illustrates how rice is grown in this climate and geography. Rice is the most widely grown cereal grain and consumed by humans in the world. One fifth of all calories eaten by people come from rice. Yen Bai is a mostly rural province located in the north of the country known for its rice growing and forestry products. The Thac Ba Hydroelectric Plant, one of the largest in Vietnam, is located in the Yen Bai province.


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Ella Fitzgerald - Ella Fitzgerald was one of the best known jazz singers in America. She was born in 1917 in Newport News, Virginia, and moved with her mother to Yonkers, New York when she was young. She had a troubled childhood, facing the death of her mother and abuse at the hand of her stepfather. After living in orphanages and homeless for a time, she was discovered at the Apollo Theater in Harlem during one of their amateur nights. Fitzgerald went on to have one of the most successful and long lasting recording careers in the history of popular music. Over her 59 year career, she recorded 70 albums, and was awarded 13 Grammys. She was awarded the National Medal of Arts in 1981 by President Reagan and the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George H.W. Bush in 1996. She died at her home in 1996 at the age of 79.


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Yo-Yo Ma - Yo-Yo Ma is one of the finest concert cellists in the world. He was born in Paris to Chinese parents and moved with his family to New York when he was five and begin performing about the same time. He studied at the prestigious Julliard School, attended Columbia University, and graduated with a Bachelor's degree from Harvard in 1975. He has performed as a soloist with major orchestras from around the world, recorded 75 albums, and received 15 Grammy awards. One of his most notable appearances was at the first anniversary of the September 11 terrorist attacks, performing at Ground Zero in New York while the names of the dead were read out. He lives with his family in Cambridge, Massachusetts.


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Myra Kinch WPA Poster - During the Great Depression, millions of Americans were with without work. Under President Roosevelt, the Works Progress Administration (WPA) was created to provide public works employment. Artists who were unemployed at the time received commissions as part of the WPA to create promotional posters such as this one for the Federal Theatre Project. Myra Kinch was a popular choreographer in dancer in the 1930s, performing shows all around the country.


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Typewriter Chapter 1 - The modern incarnation of the typewriter came into existence by the mid-1880s. Devices had been patented and invented to strike moveable type on paper dating back to the 16th century. One of the first typewriters was the moveable ball machine invented by Rasmus Malling-Hansen of Denmark in 1865. The first to be commercially successful was invented in the United States by Christopher Latham Sholes, Carlos Glidden, and Samuel W. Soule. It was the first machine to use the name typewriter and contained the QWERTY keyboard. Sholes laid the keys out in this order to prevent them from jamming together while typing. By the 1890s, the QWERTY layout became standard on most typewriters, and keyboards on most computing devices today, including phones, continue to use this layout.


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Cyrillic Typewriter - By the mid-1880s, the typewriter became a widely used device for written correspondence. The keys were arranged in the QWERTY pattern by its inventors so they would not jam when used. For typewriters used in countries that use the Latin alphabet, the keys remain more or less in the same order. However, the keys are arranged differently on those made for languages that use other alphabets, such as Cyrillic. The keyboard on a Cyrillic typewriter also has the keys arranged so that they will not jam when rapidly typing the most commonly used words in the language. The typewriter has been replaced by word processing software in many parts of the world; however, the arrangement of keys remains in use on most computers and cell phones.


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Ice Cream Sandwiches - Food coloring makes culinary creations such as these possible. Food cannot be dyed with the same chemicals used to color clothing, as any additive must be edible. Although pink, yellow, and green are naturally occurring pigments in many foods, in order to get these ice cream sandwiches bright and lasting in color, artificial colors are used. In the United States the Food and Drug Administration currently authorizes the use of seven coloring additives. The colors used in these ice cream snacks include erythrosie for the pink, tatryzine for the yellow, and a chemical containing triarymelthane for the green coloring.


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Pen and Paper - Penmanship is becoming a lost ability. As long as writing has been around, people have used styli and later ink to manipulate symbols in order to offer written communication. Some of the world's greatest documents were written with pen and ink, including the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. With the invention of typewriter, in widespread use by the 1880s, creating official documents in handwriting became exceedingly rare. The Feathers to Fountain display case on the first floor of the Arts and Sciences Building shows the evolution of the pen and some of the important documents created using this timeless form of writing. The display is near the main entrance to the building adjacent the elevators.


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Cabbage - Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) is a biennial plant, part of the cruciferous, or cole crop of vegetables, and is commonly grown in northern latitudes. Other cruciferous vegetables include brussels sprouts, Kohlrabi, collard greens, and broccoli. Like the other cole crops, cabbage is high in Folate, B Vitamins, Vitamin C, and Vitamin K. Cabbage forms the base of a variety of dishes, including sauerkraut, pierogi and coleslaw. China, India, and Russia are the world's largest producers of cabbage. The folded leaves that make up a cabbage head provide an excellent culinary display effect.


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Kiwi Fruit - Also known as Chinese gooseberry, the kiwi is the edible berry from a variety of plants of the Actinidia genus. The most common variety consumed in the United States is known as the fuzzy kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa), named so because of its thin, fuzzy skin. Kiwifruits are native to China, with the A. deliciosa variety first grown commercially in New Zealand. In order to get around high tariffs on melons and berries, the American importers of the fruit in the 1950s named it kiwi, after the national bird of New Zealand. Despite its namesake, Italy is actually the world's top producer of Kiwifruit, New Zealand is second. The United States now ranks 9th in worldwide production, growing over 28,000 tons per year.


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Girl Eating Noodles - Noodles and widely consumed around the world. Made from unleavened dough, they are a carbohydrate staple in one form or another for varying types of cuisine. The name noodle comes from the German word Nudel. The oldest evidence of noodle eating comes from remains found in a 6,000 year old earthenware bowl in China. The earliest written mention of noodles comes from the Han period of China in the 3rd century BC. German Spatzle and Italian pasta are two of the better known varieties of noodles part of European cuisine.


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Saugatuck Dunes State Park - Michigan has many state parks that dot its beautiful Great Lakes shoreline. Saugatuck Dunes, is an 1,100 acre park located halfway between Saugatuck and Holland along Lake Michigan. The park is mostly natural area with stunning views of the lake. The Michigan side (eastern shore) of Lake Michigan is dotted with naturally occurring sand dunes. These dunes can rapidly form and shift their locations, evident in the burying of Singapore, a lumbering town located near Saugatuck in the 1800s. Other dunes along the Lake Michigan shoreline include Warren Dunes to the south of Saugatuck and the Silver Lake and Sleeping Bear Dunes to the north.


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Girl With a Cup of Coffee - Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. The hot beverage is made by passing steam over roasted and ground coffee berries, more commonly known as beans. The two most common varieties of coffee berries are Coffea Arabica and Coffea canephora, the former of which having the milder of flavor. The coffee plant was first cultivated on the Arabian Peninsula in the 14th century, but is now grown in 70 countries around the world. Brazil is the world's largest produced, followed by Vietnam, Columbia, Indonesia, and Ethiopia. Finland is the world's largest consumer of coffee per capita, at nearly 5 cups per person per day.


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Pencils Behind a Woman's Face - Writing and speaking are to two essential forms of human expression and communication. Yet, people lived for millennia in societies where writing did not exist. Oral cultures have different means of expression than societies with writing, and are more reliant upon the collective memory to pass ideas, history and wisdom onto to the succeeding generations. The act of writing creates permanence to expression, even if it is itself a fleeing exercise, as ink can fade or wash away, and pencil can be erased. Writing also gives individual authorship to ideas, breaking the collective nature of knowledge prevalent in pre-literate peoples.


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Delta Region, Netherlands, United States Geological Survey - Along the southern coast of the Netherlands, sediment-laden rivers have created a massive delta of islands and waterways in the gaps between coastal dunes. After unusually severe spring tides devastated this region in 1953, the Dutch built an elaborate system of dikes, canals, dams, bridges, and locks to hold back the North Sea. The United States Geological Survey is a science organization that provides impartial information on the health of our ecosystems and environment, the natural hazards that threaten us, the natural resources we rely on, the impacts of climate and land-use change, and the core science systems that help us provide timely, relevant, and useable information.


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Yellowknife Wetlands, United States Geological Survey - Extensive wetlands lie near the town of Yellowknife, near the Great Slave Lake in the Northwest Territories, Canada. The shallow lakes seen in this image have formed in grooves in the landscape that were carved by glaciers during the last ice age. The United States Geological Survey serves the United States by providing reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life.


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Femme au Beret Rouge, Picasso - Born in Malaga, Spain in 1881, Pablo Picasso had a profound influence on twentieth century art. Recognized as one of the co-founders of analytical cubism, Picasso went on to produce prolifically in this and other styles. He was already enrolled in advance classes at the Barcelona Royal Academy of Art at the age of 15, and went on to produce more than 20,000 works of art throughout his life. Femme au Beret Rouge (Girl with a Red Beret) was painted during in the cubist style, exhibiting many elements of the artistic movement.


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Femme au Balcon, Picasso - Born in Malaga, Spain in 1881, Pablo Picasso was one of the most influential artists of the twentieth century. Picasso and Georges Braque are recognized as co-founders of the analytical cubist style. A child art prodigy, he went on to created around 50,000 works of art in his life. Femme au Balcon (Woman at a Balcony), painted in 1938, exhibits key elements of Picasso's cubism, including the subject matter and colors. Picasso's artistic career lasted near to his death in 1973.


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Rose Ruby, Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport, 1958 - Commercial air service first reached Michigan in the 1920s, and by 1930, Wayne County Airport, as Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport was then called, was handling its first flights. The airport grew substantially, especially after World War Two when it developed into one of the major airports in the United States. This picture is of Rose Ruby, a mechanic the airport, in 1958. Women mechanics were rare in the 1950s. Nonetheless, she is indicative of the job opportunities opened to women after World War Two.


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Woman in Kitchen, ca. 1920s - In the 1920s, appliance manufacturers helped to create the idealized version of a housewife happy in her abode with modern appliances. The Westinghouse Corporation was no exception to this marketing trend. Here we see a young woman appearing to be gleefully cooking on her new gas range. While the 1920s certainly brought many sought after consumer goods into Americans homes, what is missing from this picture is the contradictory feelings of overwork and lack of opportunity many housewives felt, as well as the reality that many women aspired to lives outside of the home.


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Corona Typewriter - The commercially successful typewriter was invented in the United States by Christopher Latham Sholes, Carlos Glidden, and Samuel W. Soule. It was the first machine to use the name typewriter and contained the QWERTY keyboard. Sholes laid the keys out in this order to prevent them from jamming together while typing. The Corona Company, later Smith Corona, started manufacturing typewriters in 1914. After the merger with the L.C. Smith and Brothers Company, Corona typewriters continued to be manufactured as portable machines. Smith Corona typewriters were a staple in many home offices until word processing software gradually replaced the typewriter in many parts of the world by the 1980s and 1990s.


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Spheres with Reflections - This image is indicative of equations and concepts around the mathematical constant pi. Pi is the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, and is equal to approximately 3.14159. Pi cannot be expressed as an exact ratio of two integers, nor can it be represented in a finite decimal number. For centuries mathematicians have tried to calculate pi with increasing accuracy. In 2011, mathematicians calculated pi to a decimal representation of over 10 trillion digits.


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Port Crescent State Park - The kayak is a small, paddle powered boat ideal suited for tolling small lakes, streams, and coastal sea waters. The first kayaks were invented over 4,000 years ago by Arctic hunters such as the Aleut, Yup'ik and Inuit. These first canoes were made by stretching seal skin over a wood or whalebone fame. Kayaks are a popular way of exploring Michigan's waterways, including the Great Lakes shoreline. This campsite is at Port Crescent State Park, located near Port Austin in Michigan's Thumb region.


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Michigan Fishing - Michigan has over 13,000 inland lakes and is surrounded by the Great Lakes, the largest source of surface freshwater in the world. A wide variety of fish available in different seasons, ever changing conditions and deep water make fishing the Great Lakes a tempting challenge for many anglers. Several of Michigan's rivers are also known for their fishing, making Michigan one of the most popular destinations for anglers in the United States.


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Model T Assembly Plant, 1924 - Henry Ford built his first automobile, the quadracycle, in 1896. Shortly thereafter, he co-founded the Ford Motor Company with other investors. Ford was an engineer by trade and was interested in the automobile itself and the manufacturing process. At his Highland Park, Michigan assembly plant, Ford and his company engineers perfected the use of the movable assembly line. This allowed the company to manufacture the Model T at a much lower cost than other car makers at the time, eventually settling on a price of $390 (about $5200 in 2014 dollars) per car. Between 1908 and 1927, Ford sold 15 million Model Ts, making it the first car for many Americans and to this day one of the best selling automobiles in the history of the industry.


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WPA Milk Poster - During the Great Depression, millions of Americans were without work. To alleviate high unemployment, the Federal government funded many public works projects through the WPA (Works Progress Administration), including hiring artists to create public art. Posters such as this have hung in schools, hospitals, post offices, and other government buildings encouraging people to drink milk for health, and for the support it gave to the farmers who produced it.


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Kalamazoo Celery Field - Kalamazoo was known for celery production near the turn of the twentieth century. The variety grown there was ideally suited for the dark, nutrient dense soil of the Kalamazoo River Valley. Dutch immigrants who settled on the city's north side grew enough celery to make Kalamazoo known around the country for its crunchy stalks. Celery production declined in the area in the early decades of the twentieth century, and Kalamazoo would become known for other manufactured goods such as paper and pharmaceuticals.


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Orange and Yellow Abstract - Orange and yellow appear as bright colors on the spectrum of visible light. Orange takes its name from the fruit. The English word orange comes from a similar Old French word, orenge, derived from Arabic, Persian, and Sanskrit words referring to the citrus fruit. Yellow is one of the primary colors, and its name is derived from a Germanic word gelwaz, meaning bright and gleaming. While yellow first appeared in the English language in the 8th century, yellow pigments appear in the Lascaux Cave paintings in France, known to be over 17,000 years old. The reference of Orange in the English language is more recent, dating to the 16th century.


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Green With Water Droplets - Both the color green and water are symbols of life and the natural world. Green as a word in the English language is closely related to the German word grün, both of which are derived from an old Germanic word of the same meaning. Green is associated with the natural world, and increasingly with the environmental movement. Water passing over a natural green surface evokes a life giving sustenance or a purity of existence in harmony with an unadulterated environment.


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Yukon Delta, United States Geological Survey - An intricate maze of small lakes and waterways define the Yukon Delta at the confluence of Alaska's Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers with the frigid Bering Sea. Wildlife abounds on the delta and offshore where sheets of sea ice form during the coldest months of the year. As the Nation's largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collects, monitors, analyzes, and provides scientific understanding about natural resource conditions, issues, and problems.


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Green Paper Texture - Green is the color most associated with life and the natural world. Green is also the color of the environmental movement and has become an adjective in modern lexicon. Paper was first invented by the Chinese in the 2nd century AD. Even with the advent of digital files, most of the world's important documents are still printed on paper. China is the largest producer of paper; the International Paper Company in the United States however produces more than any other company in the world.


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Syrian Desert, United States Geological Survey - Between the fertile Euphrates River valley and the cultivated lands of the eastern Mediterranean coast, the Syrian Desert covers parts of modern Syria, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, an Iraq. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a science organization that provides impartial information on the health of our ecosystems and environment, the natural hazards that threaten us, the natural resources we rely on, the impacts of climate and land-use change, and the core science systems that help us provide timely, relevant, and useable information.


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Red Paper Texture - Red is next to orange at the end of the spectrum of visible light. The name Red developed into the English language from a proto-Indo European word, reudh. It has long symbolized blood, war and anger, but is also the color of many edible plants, such as apples, tomatoes, cherries, strawberries, radishes, and persimmons. The Romans named Mars after their god of war owning to the planet's red appearance. In more modern times, red has been associate with protest and the political left, as it was the color of communism in the Soviet Union and remains so in China and North Korea.


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Ganges River Delta, United States Geological Survey - The Ganges River forms an extensive delta where it empties into the Bay of Bengal. The delta is largely covered with a swamp forest known as the Sunderbans, which is home to the Royal Bengal Tiger. This is a Landsat 7 image acquired on February 28, 2000. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) uses a variety of traditional and new media tools, including social media, to share information and help the public understand how science addresses some of our Nation's most pressing issues. The USGS also acquires satellite images of landforms from around the world.


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Golden Leaf - In order to preserve water lost through transpiration, deciduous trees lose their leaves in the autumn in advance of the dry winter season. At many latitudes, such as the Midwest of the United States, the period in the autumn before leaf loss on deciduous trees creates a brilliance of colors. This is due to the leaves losing their chlorophyll, a green colored pigment essential for photosynthesis. With the absence of chlorophyll, other color pigments show through, and the leaves turn orange, red, purple, and golden.


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Golden Leaf Abstract - Gold is one of the colors leaves on deciduous trees turn in the fall. In the late-summer and early- autumn, leaves begin to lose chlorophyll, the chemical that gives them their green color. As this is happening, production of another group of pigments, anthocyanins, begins to show through in colors such as purple, red, orange, and golden. Trees will exhibit these colors for a couple of weeks before the leaves are shed in preparation for the dry winter months. Hardwood trees such as oak, maple, sweetgum, persimmons, ash, poplar, aspen, and hickory display the most brilliant colors.


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Meandering Mississippi, United States Geological Survey - Small, blocky shapes of towns, fields, and pastures surround the graceful swirls and whorls of the Mississippi River. Countless oxbow lakes and cutoffs accompany the meandering river south of Memphis, Tennessee, on the border between Arkansas and Mississippi. The “mighty Mississippi” is the largest river system in North America. As the Nation's largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collects, monitors, analyzes, and provides scientific understanding about natural resource conditions, issues, and problems.


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Guinea Bissau, United States Geological Survey - Guinea-Bissau is a small country in West Africa. Complex patterns can be seen in the shallow waters along its coastline, where silt carried by the Geba and other rivers washes out into the Atlantic Ocean. This United States Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat 7 image was acquired on December 1, 2000. The USGS is one of the largest map making agencies in the world.


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West Fjords, United States Geological Survey - The West Fjords are a series of peninsulas in northwestern Iceland. They represent less than one-eight of the country's land area, but their jagged perimeter accounts for more than half of Iceland's total coastline. Iceland was named by Norwegian settlers who arrived at the island in the 9th century; although evidence suggests inhabitants living on the island at least a century before this. Iceland straddles the North American and European Continental shelves. It is considered part of Europe and has been a member of the European Economic Area since 1994.


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South America, United States Geological Survey - South America stretches more than 7,500 kilometers from the warm Caribbean Sea almost to Antarctica. Waters from the eastern slopes of the Andes Mountains drain into mighty rivers, such as the Amazon, that traverse rain forests, grassy plains, and dry plateaus to eventually reach the Atlantic Ocean. The United States Geological Survey satellite image is from MODIS data.


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Purple Leaf Abstract - Purple as a rich color that exists between crimson and violet. It is near blue on the visible light spectrum. Its name in English is derived from the Greek porphura, the name of the dye made from the spiny dye-murex snail. As it was the color worn by Roman judges and Catholic bishops, the color has been associated with royalty and power for centuries in the western world. Purple occurs naturally in many plants, including those that are edible such as beets, egg plant, plums and cabbage.


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Siberian Ribbons, United States Geological Survey - Vivid colors and bizarre shapes come together in an image that could be an imaginative illustration for a fantasy story. This labyrinth of exotic features is present along the edge of Russia’s Chaunskaya Bay (vivid blue half circle) in northeastern Siberia. Two major rivers, the Chaun and Palyavaam, flow into the bay, which in turn opens into the Arctic Ocean. Ribbon lakes and bogs are present throughout the area, created by depressions left by receding glaciers. Siberia is a vast geographic area that makes up much of northern Asia and constitutes 77% of Russian territory and 28% of the Russian population. It is larger than the United States, encompassing nearly 10% of all the land on earth. It has been part of Russia since the seventeenth century. The United States Geological Survey is the largest satellite image producer and distributor in the United States. Images such as this help the USGS track changes in natural resources and climate conditions around the world.


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Malaspina Glacier, United States Geological Survey - Landsat 7 image of the tongue of the Malaspina Glacier. At 1,500 square miles in area, it is the largest in Alaska, and the largest piedmont glacier in the world. The glacier sits atop and flows out of the Saint Elias Mountains onto the coastal Plain of the Gulf of Alaska. Because it does not reach the sea, it is considered a piedmont, rather than a tidal glacier. The Malaspina is named after the Italian explorer Allesandro Malaspina, who visited the glacier in the 1700s. The vastness of the ice form lead the United States National Geodetic Society to misidentify it as a plateau in the 1800s. Up to 2,000 feet thick, the glacier melted substantially enough between 1980 and 2000 to contribute to a worldwide rise in sea levels. As one of the largest land survey institutions in the world, the United States Geological Survey has produced thousands of similar images.


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Banana Leaves - Bananas are one of the most widely consumed fruits in the world. The banana is the edible fruit of plants of the Musa genus. The most popular variety is the dwarf Cavendish (Musa acuminata). Banana plants are believed to be native to Australia and Indomalaya, and were first cultivated in Papa New Guinea. They were first introduced in the United States by the United Fruit Company in the early-1900s and are now one of the most popular fruits here. They are grown in countries around the world, with most sold in the United States coming from Central America.


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Scrolls and Books - As long as writing has existed, people have determined ways to preserve information in a presentable manner. The first writing was done on clay tablets with a small stylus. Scrolls and eventually books followed with the development of writing on animal skins and the invention of paper. Some of the greatest texts in the world were preserved on scrolls, including the Bible and Quran. Books grew in popularity during the Middle Ages with the creation of manuscripts by monks. The invention of the printing press proliferated the use of books. Now many of the world's greatest pieces of literature are available on mobile computing devices.


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Dutch Typewriter - Experimentations with portable type printing going back to the 15th century, around the same time the printing press was invented. By the mid-1800s, the typewriter came into being. For the next one hundred years, it became the most commonly used device of written expression. An American inventor, Latham Sholes, laid the keys out in the familiar QWERTY pattern to prevent them from jamming. Most typewriters for languages using the Latin alphabet keep the keys in this order, including Dutch. The same is true of modern computer keyboards and phone virtual keyboards, making Shole's development of the QWERTY pattern one of the most widely adopted industrial standards in the world. The sound of clacking type keys, once a noise so ubiquitous in offices it went barely noticed, has now all but disappeared from many parts of the world, as typewriters have been replaced with computer word processing software.


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Port Crescent State Park - Port Crescent State Park is located near Port Austin at the tip of Michigan's thumb region on Saginaw Bay of Lake Huron. The Pinnebog River runs through the park as it meanders to Lake Huron. There are a variety of activities for outdoor enthusiasts at the park, including kayaking along the river.


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Point Aux Barques, Port Austin - Meaning "Point of the Little Boats" in French, Point Aux Barques is located at the tip of Michigan's Thumb region on the Lake Huron coast. A nearby lighthouse is one of the oldest in the state. Sandy beaches and sparse population make this region popular for tourists in the summer. In the winter the area sees heavy lake effect snows off of Lake Huron.


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Betty Friedan (1921-2006) - Betty Friedan (1921-2006) was an important leader of the movement for women's equality and women's rights. She is best known for her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique. Its publication was an important moment in the feminist movement of the 1960s and 1970s. She founded and was the President of the National Organization of Women (NOW) from 1966-1970. After stepping down from the presidency of NOW, Friedan advocated for the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) of the United States Constitution. The ERA passed through Congress but failed to get the required majority of votes in the states. Friedan authored several books and remained one of the most respected voices of women's rights until her death of congestive heart failure at the age of 84.


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Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Washington, DC, 1963 - The Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was a founding member of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, a leading civil rights organization of the 1950s and 1960s. King was instrumental in fusing the human rights agenda of the civil rights movement with that of the labor movement. In August of 1963, he led a march of hundreds of thousands on the mall in Washington, D.C., in a call for equal rights and an end to housing and employment discrimination. Here King is pictured as he takes the rostrum getting ready to address the crowd. He would go on to deliver his now famous "I Have a Dream" speech.


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Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Detroit, 1963 - In the 1960s Detroit was one of the most important cities in the civil rights movement. In June, 1963, a great civil rights conclave was held in the city. Attending the march and speech were the mayor of Detroit, Jerome Cavanagh, the president of the United Autoworkers Union, Walter Reuther, and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. The conclave included a march down Woodward Avenue culminating with a speech given by Dr. King at Cobo Arena. In that speech, Dr. King spoke the same words of “I have a dream” he would speak at the March on Washington later that summer. Detroit remained a key part of the push for racial equality, labor rights, and an end to housing discrimination in the 1960s.


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Rosa Parks (1913-2005) - On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was out Christmas shopping in Montgomery, Alabama. In Montgomery, like other Southern cities, blacks were required to get up and move to the back of the bus when white riders boarded. Parks refused to do so, and she was arrested. Her arrest sparked a boycott by the city's black residents of the buses. The boycott lasted for months and crippled the finances of the Montgomery bus system. The city eventually changed its policy in response to the boycott, making the protest one of the early successes in the movement towards racial equality.


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Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X - Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X were two of the well known leaders of the civil rights movement of the 1960s. King was one of the founding members and head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Malcolm X was an influential minister in the Nation of Islam until leaving that organization and founding Muslim Mosques, Incorporated. The two men took different approaches to achieving black equality, as King was a strong advocate for non-violent civil disobedience, and Malcolm X called for militant resistance to white supremacy. The two are pictured here at a press conference held at the Senate hearings on the bill that would later become the Civil Rights Act of 1964.


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Frederick Douglass (1818-1895) - Frederick Douglass was born a slave in 1818 in Talbot County, Maryland. Douglass escaped Maryland, and slavery, later settling in New Bedford, Massachusetts with his wife, Anna-Murray Douglass. He would become a leading abolitionist, and traveled through Ireland and Britain gaining support for the cause, and eventually, his legal freedom. After the Civil War, Douglass continued to be active in the movement for black equality and became a leading advocate for women's suffrage. He was well known throughout his life for his profound oratory, captivating audiences with his diction. Douglass is also remembered by his own life story, written down in his Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. Later in life he was also a major supporter of worker's rights and fought for American labor unions to end their policies of segregation. Douglass died in 1895 at the age of 77.


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Thurgood Marshall (1908-1993) - Thurgood Marshall was the first African American to be nominated to the United States Supreme Court. Before his nomination to the bench, Marshall was a prominent civil rights attorney. One of his most important cases was argued before the Supreme Court in the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas case of 1957. Marshall was one of the N.A.A.C.P. attorneys arguing for the integration of the Topeka, Kansas public schools. In the Brown decision, the Supreme Court ruled segregated public schools violated the 14th Amendment of the Constitution, precipitating an end to the practice. Marshall is pictured here at the time of that case. He was nominated by President Johnson to the Supreme Court in 1967 and remained an associate justice until his retirement in 1991.


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William Shakespeare (1564-1616) - William Shakespeare was an English playwright and poet and is recognized as one of the greatest writers in the English language. He is credited with having published 38 plays, 154 sonnets, 2 narrative poems and other verse and prose. He was born in Stratford Upon Avon, a small market town 100 miles from London. He created most of his known works between 1589 and 1613. Since little records exist of his private life, there is a great degree of speculation over who he actually was and whether or not others contributed to some works attributed to him. His plays are well known, having been translated into over 100 languages and performed throughout the world.


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Beans - The fabaceae, or leguminosae are the family of plants that produce a variety of edible seeds commonly referred to as beans. They are the third largest family of land plants with over 19,400 species. Plants of this family are the most common occurring in the forests of North America. Many varieties of beans are edible, and are commonly dried for storage. Grown in a wide variety of climates, they are among the most consumed foodstuffs in the world.


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Beans and Grains - Beans and cereal grains form the staple of many people's diets across the world; both are seeds. Evidence of bean cultivation dates back to the 7th century BC in Asia, and the 2nd century BC in the Americas. Maize, or corn (Zea mays) is the most widely produced and consumed cereal grain in the world. It is believed to have been first cultivated in Mexico. The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most widely occurring species of bean grown in the world.


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Mathematics and Computers - Computers are used for a wide variety of applications, including art and imagery. Images such as those seen here were created using computers. They illustrate a variety of mathematical expressions or themes, such as the repeating geometric pattern of a fractal, mathematical knot theory, spirals and polygonal shapes, and mathematical formulas. Patterns can also be expressed through computer generated images, such as those seen here. Geometric patterns similar to these are identifiable in some of the oldest known art in the world, including petroglyphs in the United States.


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Trefoil Knot, Ascending Spiral, Octahedron - This image contains basic forms expressing mathematical theory. A trefoil knot is the simplest example of a nontrivial knot and is fundamental to understanding knot theory. An ascending spiral is a curve that rotates around and extends outward of a central point. The octahedron is an eight-faced polyhedron. Computers can be used to generate images such as these that express various aspects of mathematical theories. Within the picture certain concepts are seen both in the images projected and in their relation to one another.


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Buy Local Produce, Detroit - Throughout the Arts and Sciences Building, images such as this have been placed to enhance the overall building environment as well as to inform, inspire and provoke. Detroit is home to a growing number of community markets, all of which aim to help Detroiters eat healthy and support local growers. The first farmer's market in the city opened in 1841, and in 1891 Eastern Market, the oldest still in operation, moved to its current location a mile northeast of downtown. Eastern Market contains the largest outdoor flower bed in the United States and can attract upwards of 45,000 customers on certain Saturdays. Detroit now has a dozen community markets selling in-season local produce, such as is advertised in this poster.


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Green Leaves - Many leaves such as those seen here are naturally green in color. The green comes from chlorophyll, a chemical essential to photosynthesis, the absorption of energy from sunlight. Chlorophyll is made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and magnesium. It reflects, rather than absorbs green spectrum light, thus its color and that of most plant leaves. Biologists are not certain why many plants evolved to be green, as black would be a more efficient color in absorbing light for photosynthesis. Possible explanations include the incomplete and imperfectability of evolution, the theory that all plants evolved from green algae, and that green-light absorbing single-cell organisms once dominated life forms on earth. Many plants lose their chlorophyll in the autumn and exhibit bright colors of orange, red, and purple as production of other pigments begins to show through.


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Computer Fractals - A fractal is a mathematical set of the same or nearly-similar pattern, or, put in a different way, in a fractal, the small parts resemble the whole. These are computer generated mathematical fractals from Harvard University. Although difficult to see, if you were to zoom in on any part of these images you would see the same pattern repeated over and over again, even down to a level well beyond what is visible to the naked eye. Fractals are common in nature, for example, they are found in plant leaves, coast lines, and snowflakes. Any one of these appears the same regardless of the scale. Fractals are also common in architecture, both modern and ancient, as repeating patterns are aesthetically pleasing and can add considerable strength to building designs. Many electronic devices include the use of fractal theory including cell phone antennas. Theoretically, a fractal pattern will repeat infinitely. These computer fractals exhibit the principles of fractal theory.


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Autumn Leaves - In order to preserve water lost through transpiration, deciduous trees lose their leaves in the autumn in advance of the dry winter season. At many latitudes, such as the Midwest of the United States, the period in the autumn before leaf loss creates a brilliance of colors. The coloration process begins in the late-summer when the leaves begin to lose their chlorophyll, a green colored pigment essential for photosynthesis. As the chlorophyll levels decrease, production of another group of pigments, anthocyanins, begins to show through in colors such as purple, red, orange, and golden. Trees will exhibit these colors for a couple of weeks before the leaves are shed. The presence of hardwood forests and a favorable climate makes Michigan a good place for viewing the fall colors. Leaf piles such as those in this image are played out along roadsides, in parks, and in people’s yards all across the state from late-September through October.


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WPA Posters - Lasting from the end of 1929 into 1939, The Great Depression was the worst economic downturn in American history. Millions were left unemployed as business failed and people lost their jobs. Beginning in 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt begin the New Deal programs intended on alleviating the economic crisis. Part of the New Deal was an agency called the Works Progress Administration, a government department that created public sector employment through public works projects. Schools, courthouses, bridges, roads, parks, and public art projects were funded by the government and created for the common good. These projects provided employment to millions. Posters such as those seen here were common of WPA projects. These would have hung in schools, courthouses, post offices or other public buildings, and near parks. The style seen here is common of the themes in WPA art. Copies of WPA art such as these are found in the Arts and Sciences Building.


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Maroon and Gold Abstract - Maroon and Gold are closely aligned to the colors selected for the third floor of the Arts and Sciences Building. This image is of a lead changing colors in the autumn. In the late-summer and early-autumn, leaves undergo a brilliant color change, part of a process that beings with their loss of chlorophyll, the chemical that gives them their green color. As the chlorophyll levels decrease, production of other pigments known as anthocyanins, begins to show through in colors such as the maroon and gold seen on this leaf. Trees will exhibit these colors four a couple of weeks before the leaves fall off the branches in preparation for the dry winter months ahead. Hardwood trees such as oak, maple, sweetgum, persimmons, ash, polar, aspen, and hickory display the most vibrant colors.


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Cherries in a Bowl - Cherries are fruit of the Prunus family. Most cherries consumed in the United States are of the Prunus avium (sweet) and Prunus cerasus (tart) types. Michigan is one of the largest producers of tart cherries in the world, in particular, the Montmorency variety. Montmorency cherries take their name from the region in France of the same name. At 90,000 tons per year, Michigan grows more of this variety than any other place in the United States. Sweet cherry varieties, such as those seen in this bowl, are also grown in Michigan and are found along roadside stands and farmer’s markets around northwest Michigan throughout the summer. The Cherry Festival in Traverse City is the largest of its kind devoted to cherries in the United States.


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Michigan Capitol Dome and Rotunda - The current Michigan Capitol is the third building to serve as the state house. Designed by Elijah E. Myers, it was built between 1872 and 1878 and became the seat of state government in January of 1879. The building was designed as a functioning office building as well as a memorial to Michigan’s role in supporting the Union during the Civil War. The dome was designed after the U.S. Capitol Dome, completed during the Civil War. The Rotunda displays replicas of the regimental battle flags of Michigan Civil War soldiers. The original battle flags were on display until they were moved to controlled-atmosphere storage when the Capitol was restored in the early-1990s. Myers also designed the Colorado and Texas state capitols and was one of the nation’s premier municipal architects of the nineteenth century.


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Coronal Mass Ejection, September 14, 1999 - The Sun is a medium-sized star and is the center of the solar system, as all planets orbit around it. Like all stars, the sun is a massive body of energy resulting in nuclear fusion reactions. Space telescopes have captured many photographs of the sun, including this one, which shows the ejection of coronal plasma during a sun spot event. Coronal mass ejections can result in elevated levels of solar radiation reaching the earth. While these radiation events are harmless to humans, they can result in temperature changes on Earth and disruption of low-Earth orbit satellite function and the power grid.


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Earthrise Over the Moon - The moon is Earth’s only natural satellite. When President John F. Kennedy took office in 1961, he challenged his fellow Americans to put a man on the moon and bring him safely back to Earth. At the time the American space program was still in its infancy, and this proposal seemed as ambitious as it was far-fetched to many. Yet, shortly after Kennedy made his call, the Apollo program was launched with putting a man on the moon as the ultimate goal. Before manned missions, unmanned spacecraft made several near orbit fly-bys of the lunar surface in order to map an area suitable for a future landing. This image was taken by Apollo 8 Astronaut Bill Anders on December 24, 1968. This photo would not possible from the lunar surface, as because of the synchronous Earth and Moon rotations, a man standing on the moon cannot see the earth rise like this.


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Desolation Canyon, USGS - Utah’s Green River flows south across the Tavaputs Plateau (top of this image) before entering Desolation Canyon (center of image). The Canyon slices through the Roan and Book Cliffs – two long, staircase-like escarpments. Nearly as deep as the Grand Canyon, Desolation Canyon is one of the largest unprotected wilderness areas in the American West. Satellite images from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) such as this have dramatically altered how we see the world from above, as they provide a previously unknown level of accuracy, detail, and scale. This false color image is from the Landsat 7 Satellite, part of the USGS data collection initiative. The data collected by the USGS is important in determining land management policy and in tracking changes in land usage and climate.


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Progesterone Crystals - Discovered by Willard Myron Allen and George Washington Corner in 1933, Allen gave the hormone its name derived from Progestational Steroidal ketone. It is a steroid hormone involved in menstruation, pregnancy and the development of human embryos. It is the major naturally occurring progestogen in humans. Progesterone is produced in the adrenal glands and ovaries as well as the placenta during pregnancy and is stored in fat tissue. The steroid has been detected in walnut trees and a progesterone like steroid has been detected in the Mexican yam plant. This is an electronic microscopic image of progesterone crystals.


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Saugatuck Dunes State Park - Michigan has many state parks that dot its beautiful Great Lakes shoreline. Saugatuck Dunes is an 1,100 acre park located halfway between Saugatuck and Holland along Lake Michigan. The park is mostly natural area with stunning views of the lake. The Michigan side (eastern shore) of Lake Michigan is dotted with naturally occurring sand dunes. These dunes can form rapidly and shift their locations, evident in the burying of Singapore, a lumbering town located near Saugatuck in the 1800s. Other dunes along the Lake Michigan shoreline include Warren Dunes to the south of Saugatuck and the Silver Lake and Sleeping Bear Dunes to the north


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LCC Writing Center - The LCC Writing Center is committed to providing high quality writing assistance to students in all areas of the curriculum. Through the center, Peer Writing Assistants (PWAs) are (or have been) LCC students who are experienced writers and who have been specially trained to assist students with their writing. This photography collection, titled Put it in Writing, was created for the LCC Writing Center by former Peer Writing Assistant and photography major, Holly Miller White, in 2003. The models in this series of photographs are Kimberly Cole, Cedric Omolo and Catherine Ryan, also LCC Writing Center staff. Funding for this project was provided by an LCC Foundation grant.


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