Arts and Sciences Wall Image Catalog
Zachariah Chandler (1813-1879) - Zachariah Chandler was one of the most important Michiganders of the 19th Century. Chandler served as Mayor of Detroit, a four-term US Senator from Michigan, a financial supporter of the Underground Railroad, strong supporter of the Union during the Civil War and a Radical Republican during Reconstruction. Chandler went on to serve as President Grant's Secretary of the Interior and died shortly after being re-elected to the Senate in 1879.
Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) - 16th President of the United States, first Republican President, President during the Civil War. Abraham Lincoln was born in Kentucky and grew up in Illinois, becoming an attorney as a young man. Lincoln entered the Illinois Legislature and was nominated by the newly formed Republican Party as their candidate for President in 1860 after having lost the 1858 Illinois Senate election to Stephen Douglas. After seeing the Union preserved through the Civil War, Lincoln was killed by John Wilkes Booth, becoming the first President to be assassinated. A symbol of persistence and fortitude, Lincoln was born into poverty, twice failed in business, and yet became one of the nation's greatest presidents.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR), was President of the United States from 1933-1945. Roosevelt is the longest serving president in US history, having been elected four terms. He was from a prominent New York family. Roosevelt became President of the US during the great depression. He was stricken with polio in his early thirties. Roosevelt very rarely had his picture taken in a wheelchair, as only two such photographs are known to exist. Also featured in the photograph are Fala, his beloved Scottish Terrier, and Ruthie Bie. The photo was taken at Hill Top Cottage in Hyde Park, N.Y.
Margaret Lynch Suckley took the famous photograph. She was a distant cousin, intimate friend, and confidante of FDR, as well as an archivist for the first American presidential library.
Ruthie Bie was the granddaughter of his Hyde Park caretaker.
Few Americans knew that he was "disabled" and could not walk. He died in April 1945 shortly before the end of WW II.
Roosevelt is known for the New Deal and being President during WW II.
Amelia Earhart (1897-1937) - Aviator, explorer, teacher, author, advocate for women's rights. Earhart was born in Atchison, Kansas. She grew up during the first generation of aviators and quickly developed an interst in, and later an affinity for, aviation. In 1923 she became just the 16th woman in the United States to be awarded a pilot's license, and in 1928 became the first woman in the world to fly across the Atlantic Ocean. She became a faculty member at Purdue University and continued her pioneering in aviation. Flying on a Lockheed 10E on the last leg of an attempt to fly around the world, she disappeared while trying to fly across the Pacific Ocean in 1937.
Letter from Zachariah Chandler to Abraham Lincoln, 1861 - Zachariah Chandler was a successful business man, experimental farmer, and lawyer from Michigan. He became Michigan's first Republican Senator in 1859. When the Civil War broke out, Chandler was one of the most vocal supporters of the Union and ardent critics of Southern secession. He wrote this letter to President Lincoln to criticize him for not appointing enough people from Michigan to his cabinet. After Lincoln's assassination, Chandler became one of the Radical Republicans in the Senate and later went on to serve in the Grant Administration as Secretary of the Interior.
Guardian Building, Detroit, Wirt Rowland, Smith, Hinchman & Grylls, 1929 - One of the best examples of Art-Deco architecture in Detroit, the Guardian Building is typical of office high rises built in the 1920s. Originally built as the Union Trust building, its orange-brown color and unique Pewabic and Rookwood tile make it a very recognizable landmark in downtown Detroit. This picture was taken around 1980 and shows the building amidst the other architectural styles in the city, including the Renaissance Center, Michigan's tallest building, to the left. The building currently houses the architectural firm that designed it.
Guardian Building Michigan Mural, Detroit, Wirt Rowland, Smith, Hinchman & Grylls, 1929 - One of the best examples of Art-Deco architecture in Detroit, the Guardian Building is typical of office high rises built in the 1920s. This Mural, designed by Ezra Winter, contains symbols of Michigan's main economic staples from the era in which the building was built. The building is one of Detroit's most significant structures and currently houses the architectural firm that designed it. It was placed on the National Historic Register in 1989 and is a central part of Detroit's downtown financial district.
Hoover Dam, Constructed 1931-1936 - The Hoover Dam is the largest hydroelectric dam in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. Construction on the Dam started during the Herbert Hoover Administration, and it is named after him. It was completed under the Franklin Roosevelt Administration as a massive public works project during the Great Depression. The dam contains enough concrete to pave a two lane road from the east to west coast. 112 men were killed during the construction of the Dam.
Jackie Robinson - First African-American player in Major League Baseball. Robinson was brought to the Brooklyn Dodgers (now L.A. Dodgers) by then owner Branch Rickey, and played his first Major League game in 1947. Robinson was already an established Negro League player by the time Rickey acquired him for the Dodgers organization. Robinson faced tremendous pressure his first year in the Major Leagues, as many players and fans were adamantly opposed to the nation's past time being integrated. Robinson excelled however, and went on to have a Hall of Fame career with the Dodgers, as he was one of the greatest second basemen of all time. His jersey number, 42, is retired by all teams in Major League baseball to commemorate his significant contributions to the game.
Louis Brandeis (1856-1941) - Brandeis was born of Jewish immigrant parents from Bohemia, and grew up in Kentucky. He was the first Jewish Justice of the United States Supreme Court having been appointed by President Woodrow Wilson in 1916. He served as a justice on the Court until he retired in 1939. Before becoming a Supreme Court Justice, Brandeis made his name as an advocate for social justice and progressive causes, authoring an influential article in the Harvard Law Review outlining his principles for the right to privacy enshrined in the US Constitution. He also authored the well read collection of essays, Other People's Money and how the Bankers Use it in 1914. Brandeis faced strong anti-Semitic bigotry, including from his fellow justices. In the year 2013, the US Supreme Court has two Jewish Justices, Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Elena Kagan.
Mount Rushmore - Built between 1927 and 1939 near Keystone, South Dakota by Gutzon and Lincoln Borglum as a monument to American history. The Gutzons carved who they believed to be the greatest Presidents in American history up to that point - George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln. The monument was originally to contain full busts of all four Presidents depicted, but Borgulm only finished the heads and part of Washington's lower bust before abandoning the project due to Gutzon's death in 1941 and a lack of funds. The monument has been managed by the National Park Service since 1933.
Statue of Liberty - Designed by Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, and dedicated in 1886, the Statue was a gift to the United States from the people of France. It was given to mark the two nations' shared devotion to liberty and stands 305 feet tall in New York Harbor. The statue was cast, dismantled, shipped in pieces to New York, then reassembled and finally dedicated amidst a ticker-tape parade by President Grover Cleveland in 1886. A replica of the statue stands in Paris, facing New York City. It was erected in 1889 by Americans living in Paris as a one hundred anniversary commemoration of the French Revolution. Often called Lady Liberty, the Statue has welcomed generations of immigrants to the United States.
Statue of Freedom - Designed by Thomas Crawford and placed upon the newly completed US Capitol Dome in 1863 as part of renovations to the building during the Civil War. The Statue evokes the images of liberty and freedom she is meant to symbolize.
Telegram from Orville Wright to Bishop Wright - The Wright brothers were among the first to successfully build and fly a motorized, controllable, fixed-wing airplane. Their first flights were in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. This telegraph was sent by Orville Wright to Bishop Wright explaining the duration of one of these first flights. The Wrights conducted several experimental flights between 1903 and 1905, and their experimentations formed the basis for the development of many fixed-wing airplanes.
Wright Flyer, Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, 1903 - The Wright brothers were among the first to successfully build and fly a motorized, controllable, fixed-wing airplane. Their first flights on their Wright Flyer aircraft were in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, and were captured on rare photographs such as this. The Wrights conducted several experimental flights between 1903 and 1905, and their experimentations formed the basis for the development of many fixed-wing airplanes.
American Toad (Bufo americanus) - The American Toad is found around much of eastern North America including Michigan. The toad begins life as an egg, and hatches into a tadpole. Tadpoles live in freshwater where they reach maturity in a month and a half to two months. The American Toad is primarily a terrestrial dweller and eats a variety of ground insects, worms, and grubs. Toads live in dark cover and hibernate in the winter.
Red Eye Tree Frog (Agalychnis callidryas) - Native to the tropical rainforests in Central America. The Red Eye Tree Frog is an arboreal dweller, and hunts at night. Its diet consists primarily of insects. They have three eyelids and very sticky feet, enabling them to move with agility through the forest. The Red Eye Tree Frog is not poisonous; its main defense mechanism is excellent camouflage, hiding itself well amongst tree branches and leaves during the day. They use vibrations and sounds to communicate and for mating calls.
Golden Toad (Bufo periglenes) - Was a species that lived in high altitude rain forests in Costa Rica. Because this toad lived in a small area near the city of Monteverde, Costa Rica, it was often times called the Monteverde Golden Toad. It is believed extinct, as it has not been seen since 1989. The Golden Toad was a small species, measuring around 2 inches in length. They spent most of their time underground and as such were rarely seen. The exact cause of this species believed extinction is unknown, although scientists believe it may have been from a fungal infection or habitat destruction.
Poison Dart Frog (Dendrobates azureus) - This species lives in the rain forests of Suriname and Brazil. Its name comes from the secretions of alkaloid poisons that serve as its defense against predators. The frogâ€™s blue color is also a defense mechanism, warning off would be predators. Female dart frogs are larger than males, although males have larger feet. Both sexes possess suction cup toes allowing them to dwell upside down on tree branches. A primarily terrestrial dweller, its diet consists mostly of insects.
Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) - The honey bee gets its name from the honey it makes by digesting nectar. The honey bee is native to Europe, Africa, and Asia. However, beginning in the 16th century, Europeans introduced them to the Americas, and they have become an important part of the fauna of the Americas since. Honey bees live in colonies contained in hives containing up to 80,000 bees. Only female bees are workers bees, have stingers, and can create honey or pollinate crops. Male bees are essentially flying gametes, their only purpose being to fertilize queen bees, and they die immediately after inseminating the queen. Bees are essential in the pollination of many crops and are therefore extremely valuable to the food supply.
American Robin (Turdus migratorius) - A migratory bird, the American Robin is found throughout North America. They breed in Canada and the northern United States and live year round in the central and southern United States. The Robin is one of the most common birds in North America and is the state bird of Michigan. In places where they do not live year round such as Michigan, their return in the early Spring is a sign to many of the end of winter.
American Woodcock (Scolopax minor) - The American Woodcock is an upland bird found in the eastern half of North America and is the only woodcock species native to this area. They thrive in young forests and consist primarily on a diet of earthworms. Woodcocks migrate at night, flying at low altitudes and spend winters as far south as the Gulf Coast states.
Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) - Found throughout all of North America, the Bald Eagle is an opportunistic carnivore that exists on a variety of prey. Eagles form lifelong mating partners and establish a hunting territory around a source of food that can extend for miles. With a wingspan of 72-92 inches and weighing on average 9-12 pounds, they are considered the largest raptor in North America. Once threatened with extirpation in the Continental United States, protection efforts have succeeded in restoring the eagle to prominence. The eagle is one of the national symbols of the United States and is the nation's national bird.
Bluebird (Sialia sialis) - The state bird of New York, the bluebird is found throughout the eastern United States and Mexico. The bluebird is a social bird, often times gathering in large flocks. Its diet consists of invertebrates, insects, and wild berries. Because of the bluebird's voracious appetite for insects, they are a welcome sight for many gardeners.
Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) - A species in the salmon family (order Salmoniformes), it is native to eastern North America. The Brook Trout is the state fish of Michigan and lives primarily in cold water streams, and lakes. Brook trout populations are sensitive to changes in water temperature, clarity, and acidity. For this reason conservation efforts are underway to preserve or restore native habitat. Brook trout have a varied diet of crustaceans, insects, frogs, and mollusks.
Common Loon (Gavia immer) - Loons are found in northern Europe, North America, and in northern Africa. They are a diving species, surviving off fish in both fresh and salt water. During migration, they fly at speeds of 75 mph. The loon is known for its unique sounds, which vary from wails to tremolos to yodels.
Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) - Found in Eurasia, North America, and Africa, the Golden Eagle is a large predatory bird. Like all eagles they are an opportunistic predator. They maintain homes in large territory ranges of up to 77 square miles. The Golden Eagle has a wingspan of 71-92 inches and weighs 5.5-7.2 pounds. Like its cousin the Bald Eagle, females are larger than males. They are the national bird of Mexico.
Kirtland's Warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii) - The Kirtland's Warbler breeds only in the northeastern Lower Peninsula of Michigan and winters in the Bahamas. Their survival depends on the abundance of young Jack Pine forests in which they build their nests. Conservation efforts are therefore focused on replanting Jack Pine forests where logging has taken place, or preserving the natural re-growth after a wild fire. Portions of Kalkaska, Crawford, and Oscoda County, Michigan are designated Kirtland's Warbler habitat preservation areas. Their biggest threat to survival is in the Brown-headed Cowbird, a species which will lay its eggs in the Warbler's nest.
Peacock (Pavo cristatus) - The peacock is known for the iridescent bright plume of feathers the male displays as a mating attraction. Peacocks are members of the pheasant family and are native to the Indian subcontinent. They are found in many parts of the world now as they are popular in botanical gardens, zoos, and other captive settings. Male Peacock feathers are also popular for decorative purposes.
Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) - Ruffed Grouse are a non-migratory bird that have an omnivorous diet. They are easily identifiable in the woods by the car engine-like sound the male emits as a mating call. The Ruffed Grouse is oftentimes mistaken for and erroneously called a partridge, even though the two are different species. It is the state bird of Pennsylvania and lives throughout eastern and northern North America.
Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) - The most widespread of New World vultures, this species lives from southern Canada to the southernmost point of South America. Sometimes called a buzzard, like most vultures, they are scavengers that feed almost entirely on carrion. Turkey Vultures were at one time a somewhat rare species in Michigan and elsewhere in the eastern United States. However, conservation efforts have brought numbers of this species to levels which make them a common site in this area.
Walter Reuther, 1907-1970 - President of the United Autoworkers Union from 1946- 1970. Reuther was one of the founding organizers of the United Auto Workers union (UAW) and was also a prominent leader in the civil rights movement. Reuther was born in Wheeling, West Virginia, and moved with his brother to Michigan in the 1920s to find work in the automobile industry. Reuther became a tool and die maker, and, after living in the Soviet Union with his brother, returned to Michigan and became one of the chief organizers of the then newly formed UAW. After being elected president of the UAW, Reuther moved the union into the political mainstream, purging it of its more radical members. Reuther also fused the agenda of the UAW with that of the Civil Rights movement, becoming a major figure behind the 1963 March on Washington. Reuther remained committed to the rights of minorities and workers till his untimely death in a plane crash near Pellston, Michigan in 1970.
President Harry S. Truman and UAW President Walter Reuther - President Harry S. Truman and UAW President Walter Reuther meeting in the Oval Office in 1952. Truman won the 1948 Presidential election despite being down in the polls to his Republican challenger Thomas Dewey most of the race. Part of Truman's electoral success was due to the support of union voters such as members of the UAW.
Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1803-1882 - Emerson was an author, philosopher, and one of the founders if the transcendentalism movement. Emerson's transcendental ideas of communion with nature and the search for the divine in the natural world are evident in his poetry and fiction. Emerson was a beloved teacher and a popular lecturer and is one of the most influential thinkers and contributors to American intellectualism.
Ben Franklin, 1706-1790 - A key figure in the American Enlightenment, Ben Franklin was one of the most influential of America's founding fathers. He was born in Boston and apprenticed as a printer to his brother. Franklin continued with the printing trade as a young man, but also conducted many scientific experiments leading to the invention of the lightning rod, publication of a farmer's almanac, and the creating of a more efficient stove. Franklin is best known for his political ideas which had a major influence on the American Revolution.
Cornel West (1953 - ) - An American philosopher, intellectual and academic. West was the first African-American to earn a PhD in philosophy from Princeton University. West's work focuses on ideas of race, gender, and the societal roles affixed to these social constructs. In 2011 he became a Professor of Philosophy and Christian Practice at Union Theological Seminary in New York City. West is one of America's best known intellectuals, appearing frequently as a guest on television programs, and in Internet and magazine interviews.
Michel Foucault, 1926-1984 - Michel Foucault was a French philosopher and historian. He was one of the pioneers of post-modernism. Foucault's ideas on gender, human sexuality, insanity, and incarceration remain widely studied and debated. His work and ideas focused on societal creations of definitions of gender, sanity, crime and punishment, and how these social constructs were used to shape society and render and distribute power. Foucault is considered to be one of the most important thinkers of the 20th century.
John Locke (1632-1704), Painting by Herman Verelst - Locke was an important part of the Enlightenment in Europe, and his ideas had a profound influence on the founding fathers of the United States. Locke grew up in Somerset County, England, and earned degrees in philosophy and medicine from Oxford University. Locke developed many of his ideas on political theory and the human condition during the English Civil War. Of these, his most important and influential were of religious toleration, that all humans are born in a state of nature, and that liberty is the natural state of humans, a state granted to them by their creation and not by government. Locke theorized that given the opportunity, people would organize a government that recognized and protected the inherent rights of people, of these life, liberty, and property. His ideas went on to influence the U.S. Declaration of Independence, and French Revolution thinkers such as Rousseau.
Simone de Beauvoir, 1908-1986 - de Beauvoir was an influential author of essays and fiction, existentialist and progenitor of modern feminism. Among De Beauvoir's most influential novels were She Came to Stay (1943) and The Mandarins (1954). Both of these books feature characters that call to question morality, sexuality, and gender. Her 1949 work The Second Sex is perhaps her most well known. The Second Sex explores the history of patriarchal oppression of women, focusing on the role played by socially constructed norms of gender. De Beauvoir and the French author and philosopher Jean Paul Sartre were lifelong friends and likely influenced each other's work. Her work remains foundational in its influence on feminism, existentialism, and post-modernism.
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), Painting by Rembrandt Peale - Architect, inventor, scientist, and one of the founders of the University of Virginia. Jefferson was one of the most important of America's founding generation and is the author of the Declaration of Independence. He was born in Virginia and educated at the College of William and Mary. Jefferson, like many of the founding fathers, was a wealthy slave owner and used his plantation for agricultural experimentation. He was one of the key American Enlightenment intellectuals. He was the first US Ambassador to France, helped create the US Navy and served as the nation's third President. He died on July 4, 1826 within hours of his contemporary, John Adams.
Issac Newton (1642-1727), Painting by Sir Godfrey Kneller - Newton was a professor at Cambridge University in England and is one of the most influential physicists and mathematicians of all time. Newton developed ideas of gravity and matter as well as mathematical theories and formulas that helped lay the framework for the modern study of these fields. Newton's theories on universal gravity and motion confirmed that planetary bodies in the solar system revolve around the sun. He also developed experiments on the speed of sound a law of cooling.
Enrico Fermi, 1901-1954 - Pioneering nuclear physicist - Fermi was born in Italy and moved to the United States with his Jewish wife in 1938 to escape the anti-Semitic laws of the Mussolini regime. A gifted researcher and theoretician, Fermi developed many of the first mechanisms for harnessing nuclear energy. During World War Two, he became part of the Manhattan Project, the United States effort to develop the world's first atomic weaponry. Along with J. Robert Oppenheimer, Fermi's experiments and work helped the US achieve its goal. After the war, Fermi became a strong opponent of the US advancing its nuclear weaponry. His work remains influential in nuclear science and many institutes, awards, and theories are named after him.
J. Robert Oppenheimer, 1904-1967 - Nuclear physicist and engineer. Oppenheimer was born in California and was one of the most important scientists of the 20th Century. Owing to his role in the development of nuclear weapons, he is called by many, along with his contemporary Enrico Fermi, "the father of the atomic bomb." Oppenheimer became the director of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton, University after World War Two. At this time he also became an outspoken critic of US policy towards nuclear proliferation, and had his security clearance revoked in 1954. Oppenheimer was recognized for his work as a nuclear scientist by President Lyndon Johnson in 1964.
William Thomson Kelvin, 1824-1907 - William Thomson Kelvin (later Sir William Thomson) was a Belfast, Ireland born physicist. He did his most important scientific work while he was a physics professor at the University of Glasgow in Scotland. Kelvin's notable contributions to science are many. They include the development of an accurate marine compass, the development of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, experimentations with electricity, and the accurate calculation of absolute zero, the temperature at which thermal energy ceases. For this, the temperature scale of Kelvin is named after him.
Mississippi River Levee Breach, May 2, 2011 - United States Geological Survey image of the breach of a levee along the Mississippi River. Most levees along the Mississippi River are built and maintained by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. Levee breaches are common in certain parts of the river, especially in the springtime due to melting snow from the north and heavy rains.
Volcano Eruption, Kamchatka, Russia, November 27, 2012 - There are over 150 volcanoes, 30 of which are active, in the far eastern Russian region of Kamchatka. This is a satellite image of a large eruption in the Kamchatka region.
Hurricane Katrina, August, 2005 - Hurricane Katrina was the strongest and deadliest hurricane of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm first made landfall in Florida as a Category 1 hurricane, but strengthened into a Category 5 once over the Gulf of Mexico. This picture was taken as the storm was beginning to make landfall on the Gulf Coast of the United States. By then, Katrina had weakened to a Category 3, but was still a very powerful storm. It caused over $100 billion in property damage and killed over 1,800 people, devastating New Orleans and many communities along the Louisiana and Mississippi Gulf Coast.
Orchid pollinia (Ludisia discolor) - The black jewel orchid is native to southeast Asia. In its natural environment, the orchid lives on the forest floor and blossoms in late-winter and early-spring. The jewel orchid thrives in humid, warm conditions with low to medium levels of light. This is an electron microscope image of the orchid showing some of its structure.
Butterfly Eye and Proboscis (Ochlodes spp.) - Butterflies are part of the Lepidoptera order of insects and have four stages of life cycle: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Many species of butterflies exhibit mimicry, the ability to appear as another species for protective purposes. They feed primarily on nectar from flowers, sucked in through the proboscis, an organ which extends from their mouth. This image shows both the eye and proboscis of a butterfly magnified several hundreds of times with an electron microscope.
Bee Pollen Basket on Rear Leg (Apis Mellifera) - Honey bees take their name from the honey they produce in the hives in which they live. Bees make honey through the digestion process of nectar eaten from flowers. Bees gather pollen on their legs and spread it around from plant-to-plant as they fly around looking for nectar. This pollination performed by bees is essential to many crops that are grown for food and fuel.
Crab Spider (Misumena vatia) - Crab spiders are a wide ranging species that live in most of the northern hemisphere. They are typically either yellow or white, depending on the color of the flower they are hunting on. This makes them very effective predators. Female crab spiders are typically twice the size of males and ideally consume a substantial diet to produce the best eggs for reproduction. This is a close up image of the eye and mouth structure of a crab spider. It has been magnified several hundreds of times with an electron microscope.
Germinating Pollen (Sauromatum guttatum) - Pollen is a powder containing the microgametophytes of seed plants. These microgametophytes produce sperm cells, making pollen essential to plant reproduction. When pollen lands on a compatible female cone it germinates, facilitating the transfer of sperm to the ovule or female gametophyte. Pollen is spread from plant-to-plant by insects including bees. This is an electron microscope produced image of pollen germinating after landing on a female cone. The study of pollen is used in a variety of sciences including paleontology, anthropology, and forensics.
E. Coli - rod prokaryote (bacterium) - This is a microscopic image of E. Coli (short for Escherichia coli), a common bacteria found in the gut of most animals including humans. There are a wide variety of strains of E. Coli bacteria. Most are harmless to humans; however, some can cause serious illness spread through contaminated food. Commonly found E. Coli in the human gut are essential to the production of vitamin K2 and ward off otherwise harmful intestinal bacteria.
Hummingbird feather shaft, barbs, and barbules - The hummingbird is one of the smallest bird species, averaging just 2-5 inches in length and weighing about that of a penny. Their name comes from the sound made from their wings, which they can beat at a remarkable rate of 12-80 times per second. The hummingbird diet includes nectar, spiders and insects. This is a close up image of the intricate structure of the feather of a hummingbird showing the interlocking barbs and barbules. Many hummingbirds get their colors from the reflection of light off the cells of their feathers rather than the color of their plumage.
Mild fruiting structure (Aspergillus versicolor) - Aspergillus is a genus of dozens of mold species found throughout the world. The name comes from the resemblance of the species to an aspergillum (holy water sprinkler) when viewed from under a microscope. This electron microscope image shows the triangular flowering pattern the mold gets its name from. Molds of the Aspergillus genus are studied extensively and can cause a variety of infections in animals and humans. Aspergillus versicolor is a mold that is commonly found in soils, on food, and in buildings.
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-2, DNA virus) - This is an electron microscopic image of the Herpes Simplex 2 (HSV-2) virus. Herpes is a virus that can cause a variety of diseases in humans including cold sores and genital infection. Transmission is through contact with an infected area of the skin. Herpes cycles between active and latent stages and is most commonly spread during an active stage. Like most viruses, once acquired, Herpes cannot be eradicated from the body and is treated with antiviral drugs.
Female Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus) - The Tiger Mosquito is native to southeast Asia however has spread to many parts of the world, including the eastern United States. They are named for the black and white stripes appearing on their abdomen. Tiger Mosquitoes carry and spread diseases such as the West Nile Virus, dengue fever, and Yellow Fever. They have spread throughout the world on cargo ships and are a very adaptable species, even having the ability to hibernate in the winter and survive snow and sub-freezing conditions. This image shows the antennae and proboscis of a female Asian tiger mosquito.
Mosquito Compound Eye (Aedes albopictus) - This is a microscopic close-up image of the compound eye structure of an Asian Tiger Mosquito. A compound eye consists of thousands of individual photoreceptor units located on a convex surface, all pointing in a slightly different direction. Compound eyes give mosquitoes and other insects a very wide viewing angle, and the ability to detect rapid and microscopic movement along with the polarization of light. Compound eyes also make it possible to see minute detail human eyes require magnification instruments for.
Table Salt Crystal (NaCl) - Sodium Chloride is the chemical name for table salt. It is an ionic compound consisting of equal parts sodium and chlorine. Salt is an essential nutrient in humans who must acquire it through their diet. Sodium Chloride is also responsible for the salinity of the ocean, and is widely occurring in nature. Common table salt is used to flavor food and is also used in a variety of chemical applications, as a water softener and road de-icer. Nearly 40% of the world's salt is produced in China and the United States. At 1500 acres, and containing over 100 miles of underground roads, the largest salt mine in Michigan is operated by the Detroit Salt Company underneath the city of Detroit.
Ibuprofen Crystals - Electron Microscopic image of ibuprofen crystals. Ibuprofen is a commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used as a pain killer, anti-inflammatory and fever reducing medicine. Ibuprofen was developed and patented by the British company Boots in 1961. It is widely used and considered by the World Health Organization to be a core drug as part of its Model List of Essential Medicines.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Crystals - Ascorbic acid is a naturally occurring organic compound and is a common form of vitamin C. Many animals produce vitamin C naturally; however, humans do not, and must obtain it from their diet, as it is an essential nutrient. A lack of vitamin C in the diet causes scurvy, a rare disease in the developed world that was once common especially among sailors who lacked a diet of fresh fruit over prolonged voyages. Ascorbic acid is produced from glucose by a chemical process, and 80% of the world's supply is produced in China.
Calcium Carbonate Crystals - Calcium carbonate is a widely occurring chemical compound found in rocks around the world. It is the primary cause of hard water, and the main ingredient in agricultural lime and antacids. The main source of industrial calcium carbonate is from mining and quarrying including extraction from marble for use in food. Calcium carbonate is also the main component of shells of marine organisms such as snails and pearls, and of bird eggshells. This is an electron microscopic image of calcium carbonate crystals.
Testosterone Crystals - Electron microscopy image of testosterone crystals. Testosterone is a steroid hormone secreted in the testes of males and ovaries of females. Testosterone is the main sex hormone of men who produce 20 times more of it than women. It is responsible for the secondary sex characteristics of males and is important in the prevention of osteoporosis in both males and females. Most vertebrates produce testosterone, and numerous studies have been conducted to measure its production and effect. Studies indicates that men with elevated levels of testosterone are more selfish and aggressive in decision making and are more prone to violent or criminal behavior.
Epinephrine (adrenalin) and Sucrose Crystals - Electron microscopy image. Epinephrine (adrenalin) is a hormone and neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the regulation of the heart rate, blood vessel and air passage diameters, and metabolic shifts in the human body. Epinephrine is also an important component of the sympathetic nervous system. Epinephrine is used to treat a variety of medical conditions including internal bleeding, anaphylaxis, cardiac arrest, bronchospasm and high blood sugar levels.
Pyrogallic Acid Crystals - Electron microscopic image. Pyrogallol (benzene-1,2,3-triol) is a benzenetriol. It was a commonly used chemical in hair dyeing, and photo developing. However, due to its toxicity it is no longer in common use, except with some black and white developers. Exposure to pyrogallic acid can be toxic, thus limiting its current usage in industry.
Progesterone Crystals - Discovered by Willard Myron Allen and George Washington Corner in 1933, Allen gave the hormone its name derived from Progestational Steroidal ketone. It is a steroid hormone involved in menstruation, pregnancy and the development of human embryos. It is the major naturally occurring progestogen in humans. Progesterone is produced in the adrenal glands and ovaries as well as the placenta during pregnancy and is stored in fat tissue. The steroid has been detected in walnut trees and a progesterone like steroid has been detected in the Mexican yam plant. This is an electronic microscopic image of progesterone crystals.
Caffeine Crystals - Caffeine is a naturally occurring stimulant drug. In its natural form it is a white, bitter, alkaloid. It is found in a wide variety of plants in seeds, leaves, and fruit, where it acts as a pesticide and a memory enhancer of some pollinators. Caffeine is derived from coffee, tea, and the kola nut and is the world's most widely consumed psychoactive drug. 90% of adults in North America consume caffeine daily and it is classified by the Food and Drug Administration as a GRAS (generally recognized as safe) drug.
Penicillin (antibiotic) Crystals - A group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi, Penicillin antibiotics were the first drugs effective against many bacterial infections and diseases such as syphilis. Like many antibiotics, penicillins work by blocking the division of bacteria. Penicillin is produced from mold when the growth of the fungus is inhibited by stress. Alexander Fleming, a Scottish scientist, is credited with discovering penicillin in 1928, even though scientists dating back to 1875 had observed the anti-microbial properties of penicillin mold. Although Fleming's discovery is considered the beginning of the modern era of antibiotic experimentation, Howard Walter Florey, Ernst Chain, and Norman Heatly were the first to apply penicillin for medical treatment.
Methamphetamine (Ice) Crystals - Methamphetamine (also called Meth, Crystal Meth, or Ice) is a psychoactive stimulant drug. Methamphetamine is a schedule II controlled substance in the United States and on the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances treaty. The meth crystals here are in the form of hydrochloride salt. In low doses, methamphetamine increases alertness and reduces fatigue. In high doses it can produce euphoria by releasing a high level of dopamine in the brain. Methamphetamine is highly addictive and can cause considerable psychological and physical harm including overdose.
Saturn's Rings - Saturn is the second largest planet in the Solar System, the sixth from the Sun, and, along with Jupiter, Neptune, and Uranus, one of the gas giants. Saturn is not entirely made up of gas however. It is believed the planet has a core made of iron and nickel surrounded by a layer of metallic hydrogen, liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. Saturn's yellowish color comes from ammonia crystals prominent in its upper atmosphere. Saturn is identifiable by the eleven rings surrounding the planet, nine of which are continuous. The rings are made up of particles, some very large including ice and rocks, trapped in the planet's gravitational pull.
Lunar Crater - Earth's only satellite, the moon, is believed to have formed from a massive collision of Earth with an object the size of planet Mars. The debris created from this event eventually coalesced due to gravity and formed into orbit around the Earth. Unlike Earth, the moon has only a very thin atmosphere and very little surface gravity. This makes it prone to bombardment with asteroids. The moon is also the only planetary body other than Earth to be visited by humans as part of the Apollo missions of the 1960s and 1970s. Many of the moon's craters are large enough to be seen from Earth without the aid of a telescope.
Coronal Mass Ejection, September 14, 1999 - The Sun is a medium-sized star and is the center of the solar system, as all planets orbit around it. Like all stars, the sun is a massive body of energy resulting in nuclear fusion reactions. Space telescopes have captured many photographs of the sun, including this one, which shows the ejection of coronal plasma during a sun spot event. Coronal mass ejections can result in elevated levels of solar radiation reaching the earth. While these radiation events are harmless to humans, they can result in temperature changes on Earth and disruption of low-Earth orbit satellite function.
Gravity of the Moon's Dust - The moon is the only natural satellite of Earth. It is believed to have formed as a result of a collision between Earth and a Mars-sized planetary body around 4.5 billion years ago. The inner core is made of solid iron with the outer made of liquid iron. The moon's crust is on average 25km thick and is made primarily of anorthosite, an igneous rock which is also found throughout Earth. The moon's gravitational field has been measured by instruments aboard space probes orbiting the satellite. The gravity of the moon impacts Earth by causing the tides in the ocean.
Jupiter - Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun in the solar system. It is the largest planet in diameter and has the mass of 2.5 times that of all other planets in the solar system combined. Like Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus, Jupiter is considered a gas giant; its atmosphere is mostly hydrogen and helium, although like the other gas giant planets it likely has a solid core. Jupiter is known to have at least 67 moons, the largest of which, Ganymede, has a diameter greater than Mercury. Space probes have been sent to fly by Jupiter and have taken many photographs of the planet. The Great Red Spot is a large hurricane-like storm in the planet's atmosphere that has been observed for over 200 years.
Galileo Galilei - Galileo (1564-1642) was an Italian astronomer and physicist known for his major contributions to the scientific revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries. Galileo contributed to a better understanding of astronomy by confirming many of the ideas of Copernicus, including the rotation of the planets around the Sun. Galileo's astronomical contributions also include the observation of the phases of Venus, sunspots, and the discovery of four of Jupiter's moons, Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, thus named the Galilean moons. He is considered the father of modern astronomy.
Frederick Douglass - Frederick Douglass was born a slave in 1818 in Talbot County, Maryland. Douglass escaped Maryland, and slavery, later settling in New Bedford, Massachusetts with his wife, Anna-Murray Douglass. He would become a leading abolitionist, and traveled through Ireland and Britain gaining support for the cause, and eventually, his legal freedom. After the Civil War, Douglass continued to be active in the movement for black equality and became a leading advocate for women's suffrage. He was well known throughout his life for his profound oratory, captivating audiences with his diction. Douglass is also remembered by his own life story, written down in his Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. Later in life he was also a major supporter of worker's rights and fought for American labor unions to end their policies of segregation. Douglass died in 1895 at the age of 77.
George Washington Carver - Carver was born into slavery in Mississippi around 1864. He was a scientist, inventor and educator. Carver's experimentations with the peanut, cotton, sweet potatoes, and soybeans made lasting contributions to the improved cultivations of these crops. He attended college in Indianola, Iowa, and later became both the first black student and faculty member at the Iowa State Agricultural College in Ames, Iowa. Carver is well known for a long career as an educator at Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama. He was invited there by Booker T. Washington and went on to head the Agricultural Department. Carver stayed at Tuskegee for 47 years. While there he developed a mobile classroom and conducted many of his major agricultural experiments. He died at the age of 78 in 1943.
Erasmus - Erasmus (1466-1526) was a Dutch Catholic Priest and theologian. Erasmus lived during the European Renaissance and the beginning of the Protestant Reformation. A theologian who emphasized free will as opposed to the Protestant doctrine of predestination, Erasmus remained a Catholic priest despite recognizing the legitimacy of some criticisms of the Catholic Church. He believed in reforming the Church from within, and thus distanced himself from early Protestant theologians such as Martin Luther. This painting is from Hans Holbein the Younger, a German painter of the Northern Renaissance tradition recognized as one of the greatest portrait artists of the 16th century.
President Lyndon B. Johnson and Martin Luther King, Jr. - Lyndon Baines Johnson was the 36th President of the United States. Johnson became President after John F. Kennedy's assassination in Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. In the remainder of Kennedy's term Johnson served out, he tried to complete some of his predecessor's initiatives, and signed into law the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964. Here Johnson is meeting with Martin Luther King Jr. King was the leader of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), an important civil rights organization in the 1960s. King and other civil rights leaders pushed the President to sign the Civil Rights Act of 1964 as well as the Voting Rights Act of 1965, two important parts of Johnson's legacy. Facing growing opposition to the Vietnam War, Johnson did not seek reelection in 1968, retiring from politics and public office. Johnson died in 1973 at the age of 64. King was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968 at the age of 39.
Potato Starch Grains - Potatoes are an edible tuber, and are the fourth largest crop in the world. Now an important part of the diet of many cultures, they are one of the oldest domesticated plants, having been first cultivated in Peru and Bolivia 7,000 to 10,000 years ago. The potato was introduced to Europe and North America 400 years ago after the Spanish colonization of South America. There are now over 1,000 varieties of potatoes, but nearly all of these trace their origin to a single type grown in Peru during the early-domestication period. This is a close up image of starch grains from the potato plant.
Broccoli differentiating apical meristem - Broccoli is a plant native to the Italian Peninsula believed to have been first cultivated by the Romans. It is a member of the cabbage family and its Italian name refers to the cabbage like appearance of the crown of the plant. Broccoli was first introduced in the United States by Italian immigrants in the early part of the twentieth century and now forms an important part of many American dishes. The plant is high in Vitamin C and dietary fiber. This is a close up image of broccoli differentiating apical meristem, a process of embryogenesis of the plant.
Remnants of Ancient Streambed on Mars - Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun. It is smaller than the Earth and it is speculated that the planet may have once contained conditions hospitable to life, although as of yet, no evidence of life, past or present, has been discovered. Multiple unmanned probes have been sent to Mars, including the recent National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) rover, Curiosity. Curiosity is equipped with scientific equipment to study the Martian soil. This is an image taken from Curiosity that shows what scientists believe to be an ancient streambed. Images such as this provide evidence that liquid water existed on Mars in the past. It is believed the planet's polar caps contain vast quantities of frozen water.
Mars Mount Sharp Panorama in Raw Colors - The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched the Mars Curiosity Rover on November 26, 2011. The unmanned spacecraft the size of an automobile was sent to the planet to explore in and around the Gale Crater. After a 563,000,000km journey, Curiosity arrived at its destination location on the planet August 6, 2012. Since being on Mars, the rover has taken samples of Martian soil and pictures of the geography. This is a picture taken by Curiosity of Mount Sharp, a feature of the Martian surface nearby Curiosity. NASA scientists leave some of the photos from curiosity in the raw colors they were taken in, while others are adjusted to look like they would appear in natural light on Earth. Like Earth, Mars has an atmosphere. However, unlike Earth, the Martian atmosphere consists of mostly of Carbon Dioxide.
Buckyballs Floating in Interstellar Space - Computers can be used to demonstrate a variety of mathematical equations and concepts, such as parabolas, fractals, spheres, etc. These projections and images can also form interesting motifs. This computer generated image shows the relationship of planetary bodies in space and suggests the force of gravity acting upon them.
Mars Panoramic View from Rocknest - The Mars Curiosity Rover is the latest unmanned space exploration vehicle sent by NASA to explore Mars. Curiosity arrived on the planet in August 2013 and has since sent back to Earth many color images of its surrounding environment. The surface of Mars is very dry and very cold. Mars has a thin atmosphere, making the surface vulnerable to solar radiation. The planet is also very windy, with massive dust storms shaping the surface. It is possible liquid water once existed on the planet; however, due to the low atmospheric pressure, it is unlikely surface water currently exists for any length of time. Rocknest is the name of the location of the Curiosity Rover when it took the images to create this photo. NASA uses images sent to Earth from the rover to study the surface of the planet.
Mars - Mount Sharp - Curiosity is unmanned spacecraft the size of an automobile that was sent to Mars to explore in and around the Gale Crater. After a 563,000,000km journey, Curiosity arrived at its destination location on August 6, 2012. Curiosity has sent back to Earth many pictures of the landscape surrounding the vehicle. This is a picture taken by Curiosity of Mount Sharp, a feature of the Martian surface nearby the rover. NASA scientists study the photographs sent from Mars in order to determine features of the planet and to consider where to direct Curiosity. The colors on this photograph have been adjusted to show how the landscape would appear in natural Earth light.
Cosmic Gas Cloud - A star is created out of the existence of huge gas and dust clouds in the cosmos, called nebulae. In the denser regions of these clouds gravitational collapse occurs; particles randomly bouncing around collide and begin to stick together, forming a giant ball known as a protostar. This increases the temperature and pressure, causing the ball to rotate faster, and nuclear reactions to occur, balanced out by the inward pull of the gravity, preventing the protostar from simply exploding. This protostar increases its spinning, and as more matter becomes absorbed into it, its centrifugal force creates a central sphere and a surrounding disk of matter. This sphere eventually becomes a star.
President Gerald Ford - Gerald R Ford is the only President of the United States to have come from Michigan. Ford grew up in Grand Rapids and went to school at the University of Michigan. He was a decorated veteran of the Second World War and entered Congress representing the west side of the Lower Peninsula for many years. Ford rose to prominent leadership positions within the Republican Party, eventually becoming the House Minority Leader in 1965. When Vice President Spiro Agnew was forced to resign, President Nixon nominated Ford as his new Vice President. Nixon himself resigned amidst the Watergate scandal in 1974, and Ford became President. Known for his honesty and down-to-earth demeanor, Ford restored confidence in the White House. He died in 2006 at the age of 93, having lived the longest of any U.S. President, and is buried at the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Museum in Grand Rapids.
President John F. Kennedy Addressing the American University in Washington, DC - John Fitzgerald Kennedy is pictured here giving a speech at the American University in Washington. Kennedy was one of Joseph Kennedy's nine children, most of who rose to prominence in their own right. John attended Harvard and enlisted in the Navy during World War Two after receiving a medical disqualification from the Army. After a distinguished record of service in the war, Kennedy entered politics. He was elected to the Senator from Massachusetts in 1952, and in 1960 won a very close Presidential election against the incumbent Vice President, Richard Nixon. In doing so, Kennedy became the first, and to this date, the only Roman Catholic to hold the office of the Presidency. Kennedy served less than one term in office, as he was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. Kennedy is laid to rest at Arlington National Cemetery.
Michigan Governor G. Mennen Williams with Massachusetts Senator John F. Kennedy - G. Mennen "Soapy" Williams served 12 two year terms as the 41st Governor of Michigan from 1949-1961. His grandfather founded the Mennen soap and personal care products company, hence G. Mennen's nickname of "Soapy." William's best known legacy to the state of Michigan is the Mackinac Bridge, constructed during his tenure in office. Here Governor Williams and then Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts, both prominent Democrats, are pictured at the ceremonial opening of the Mackinac Bridge in 1958. Williams left office three weeks before Kennedy became President, and would go on to serve as Kennedy's Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs. His career in public office ended as the Chief Justice of the Michigan Supreme Court. Williams died in 1988 at the age of 78 and is buried in the Protestant Cemetery on Mackinac Island.
Governor George Romney and Pennsylvania Governor William Scranton - George Romney served as Governor of Michigan from 1963 to 1969. William Scranton served as Governor of Pennsylvania from 1963-1967. Romney was already well known in Michigan before becoming Governor, as he was the CEO of American Motors Corporation, and a participant in the state constitutional convention held between 1961 and 1962. Elected in 1962, he became the first Republican to win the office since Kim Sigler in 1946. Romney would go onto win reelection in 1964 and 1966. He ran for President in the 1968 election, but did not make it far in the primary process. Ultimately, Richard Nixon won that election and Romney left the Governor's office to become President Nixon's Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. George Romney's son, Mitt, ran unsuccessfully as the Republican candidate for President in the 2012 election.
Ajax Cleanser - Ajax cleanser was developed and introduced in the United States as a commercial cleaning product by the Colgate-Palmolive company in 1947. This is an electron microscopic image of the cleanser, showing its main chemical makeup of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, sodium carbonate, and quartz. The main chemical compound in Ajax, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, is an odorless salt and is one of the most commonly used chemical compounds in commercial cleansing agents including laundry detergent.
Lyndon B. Johnson Signing the Civil Rights Act, 1964 - Lyndon Baines Johnson became President of the United States on November 22, 1963 upon the assassination of John F. Kennedy. During his first year in office, Johnson saw through Congress one of Kennedy's key initiatives, a civil rights act. The law was instrumental in ending segregation, as it outlawed discrimination in housing, employment, public accommodations, and education facilities. Here Johnson is pictured with several key sponsors and supporters of the bill, including Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., who is standing directly behind the President. Johnson would go onto win the election of the 1964, defeating his Republican challenger Barry Goldwater.
Booker T. Washington - Booker T. Washington was born into slavery in Virginia in 1856. After the Civil War, his family moved to West Virginia where he attended the Hampton Normal Agricultural School and the Wayland Seminary. Washington advocated tirelessly for the civil rights of freed slaves in the increasingly segregationist South of the late-nineteenth century. In 1891 he became the head of the newly established Tuskegee Institute. He remained associated with that school the remainder of his life. While Washington was criticized by many of his contemporaries for working within the segregated South, he secretly funded legal challenges to discriminatory laws and practices. He died in 1915 at the age of 59.
Cesar Chavez - Agricultural workers are among the hardest working and least paid laborers in the United States. They are also disproportionately immigrants, especially from Mexico and Central America. Chavez fought for higher wages and better working conditions for immigrant farm workers. He helped form the United Farm Workers Union with Delores Huerta in the 1970s. The UFW was initially an organization of California immigrant workers; it eventually spread to other parts of the United States. Although union membership dwindled, Chavez remained an important advocate for immigrant and Latino/Latina rights. He died in 1993 and remains an important historical figure in the United States.