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Digital Object Identifiers (DOI)

A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a unique number assigned to some journal articles and books available electronically. Magazine and newspaper articles are not assigned DOIs. APA requires citations for journals and books to include a DOI, if it is available. Find the DOI on the article or look up the DOI with the author name and article title at:
http://www.crossref.org/guestquery/

Research Database Sources

Many articles in research databases are identical to their print version, so it is not necessary to provide database information. However, if an article can only be found in a database, then include the database URL.

Journal article

List up to seven authors. For more than seven authors, list the first six, then use an ellipsis (...) and the last author.

Always include the volume number. Include the issue number only if every issue begins on page 1.

Example

Frank, T. H. (1995). The interpretation of limits: Doctors and novelists in the fiction of Philip Roth. Journal of Popular Culture, 8(4), 67-80.

Pfeffer, M. A., Burdmann, E. A., Chen, C. Y., Cooper, M. E., de Zeeuw, D., Eckardt, K. U., … Toto, R. (2009). A trial of darbepoetin alfa in type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 361, 2019-2032. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0907845

Smeaton, G. L., & Josiam, B. M. (1998). College students' binge drinking at beach-front destinations during spring break. Journal of American College Health, 46, 247-251. doi:10.1080/07448489809596000

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page range. doi:xxxx (if available)

APA Manual 7.01 #1-5 (pp. 198-199)

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Magazine article

Examples

Magnets that move moods: New treatment for depression. (2002, June 24). Newsweek, 139(25), 57.

Padget, T., & Desvarieux, J. (2010, March 8). Hope for Haiti’s kids. Time, 175(9), 36.

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Magazine, volume number(issue number), page range.

APA Manual 7.01 #8 (pp. 200)

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Newspaper article or newswire

Examples

Glauber, B. (1998, February 14). American college students aren't in a class by themselves on drinking. The Dallas Morning News, p. C11.

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Date of publication). Title of article. Name of Newspaper, page range.

APA Manual 7.01 #11 (pp. 200-201)

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Encyclopedia article

Examples

Nordenson, N. & Odle, T. (2006). Blood sugar tests. In Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. (3rd ed., Vol. 1). Retrieved from http://www.gale.cengage.com/gvrl/

Zoologist. (2008). In A-Z of Careers & Jobs. (15th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.gale.cengage.com/gvrl/

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Year of publication). Title of entry. In Name of encyclopedia. (Edition number, Volume number). Retrieved from database URL

APA Manual 7.02 (p. 202)

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Dictionary definition

Example

Abate, F. (1999). Renaissance. In The Oxford American dictionary of current English. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://www.oxfordreference.com/

Parts of citation

Name of Editor. (Year of publication). Title of entry. In Name of dictionary. (Edition number, Volume number). Retrieved from database URL

APA Manual 7.02 #27,29 (pp. 204, 205)

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Ebook

Example

Papadopoulos, A., & La Fontaine, J. (2000). Elder abuse: Therapeutic perspectives in practice. Retrieved from http://netlibrary.com/

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Year of publication). Title of book. Retrieved from database URL

APA Manual 7.02 #19 (p. 203)

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Article or chapter in an edited book

Example

Leeper, B. (2006). Cardiovascular system. In M. Chulay & S.M. Burns (Eds.). AACN essentials of critical care nursing. Retrieved from http://online.statref.com/

Mallory, E. (1997). Alcohol abuse is a serious problem among college students. In P. A. Winters (Ed.), Current controversies: Teen addiction. Retrieved from http://www.gale.cengage.com/OpposingViewpoints/

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Year of publication). Title of article. Name of editor, Title of book. Retrieved from database URL.

APA Manual 7.02 #24 (p. 204)

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Articles only available in databases

TIP: LCC research databases which would follow this format include CultureGrams, Issues and Controversies, Today’s Science, ERIC, Science Online, Vocational Biographies, and World Geography.

Example

Lamoureux, F. (2010). Indonesia: Traditions and etiquette. In World Geography. Retrieved from http://www.worldgeography.abc-clio.com

Reid, N. C., & Williams, R. G. (2008). Coast type. In Encyclopedia of marine science. Retrieved from http://www.fofweb.com/

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Date of publication). Title of article. In Title of book/database. Retrieved from database URL.

APA Manual 7.02 #24 (p. 204)

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Internet Sources

General Guidelines

When possible your citation should include:

  • author
  • date of publication or update (use n.d. if not available)
  • web page or document title
  • website URL

TIP: When a URL is longer than one line, make a break after a slash or before a period. When there is no author, begin a reference with the title of the webpage.

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Page or document from a website

TIP: When no date is available, use (n. d.)

Example

Hopson, K. (2007, January 4). Mott Children's Hospital ranked top children's hospital in state by Child Magazine. University of Michigan Health System. Retrieved from http://www.med.umich.edu/opm/newspage/ 2007/childmag.aspx

Kane, E. (1999). Dendroica kirtlandii. Retrieved from http:// animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Publication date) Title of the page. Website title. Retrieved from Article URL

APA Manual 7.01 #8,11 (p. 200) 7.11 (p. 215)

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Government publication

Examples

United States. Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. (2002). Creative partnerships: Supporting youth, building communities. (Publication No. J36.2:IN6/P25). Retrieved from http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS24105

United States. Department of Health and Human Services. (2002, April 9). The NHSDA report: Binge drinking among underage persons. Retrieved from http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k2/AlcBinge/AlcBinge.cfm

Parts of citation

Country. Sponsoring agency. (Date of publication). Publication title. (Publication Number). Retrieved from Publication URL

APA Manual 7.03 #31 (p. 205)

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Journal article

Example

Gugajew, S. (2008). A method to the creative madness. Journal of Integrated Marketing Communications, 7, 12-18. Retrieved from http://jimc.medill.northwestern.edu/ JIMCWebsite/site.htm

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page range. doi:xxxx (if not available, include journal URL).

APA Manual 7.01 #8 (p. 200)

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Magazine article

Example

Gleach, F. W. (2006, November). The ritual world of Pocahontas. Natural History. Retrieved from http://www.naturalhistorymag.com/1106/1106_feature.aspx

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Publication date). Title of article. Title of Magazine Website, volume number(issue number). Retrieved from Article URL

APA Manual 7.01 #8 (p. 200)

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Encyclopedia article

If the entry has no author listed, place the title in author position.

Examples

Righelato, P. (2006, October 1). Daisy Miller. In The literary encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.litencyc.com/php/ftsearch.php

Mickey Mouse. (2006, November 26). In Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mickey_Mouse

Parts of citation

Author of article. (Publication date). Title of article. In Title of encyclopedia. Retrieved from Article URL

APA Manual 7.02 #29 (p. 205)

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Newspaper article or newswire

Example

Carr, C. (2006, November 19). Computer support technicians who play well with others. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/

Maxell, C. (2007, June 11). Community college. The State News. Retrieved from http://www.statenews.com/ article.phtml?pk=41319

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Publication date). Title of article. Title of Newspaper Website. Retrieved from Article URL

APA Manual 7.01 #11 (p. 200)

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E-mail

Personal communications such as email are not cited in the references list, only in text.

APA Manual 6.20 (p. 179)

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Discussion list

Personal communications such as discussion groups are not cited in the references list, only in text.

APA Manual 6.20 (p. 179)

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Blog

Example

Farkas, M. (2006, November 1). Firefox 2 is my new best friend. Information wants to be free. Retrieved from http://meredith.wolfwater.com/wordpress/index.php

Parts of citation

Author of blog entry. (Date of blog entry). Title of blog entry. Title of blog. Retrieved from Blog URL

APA Manual 7.11 #76 (p. 215)

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Radio program

Example

Keillor, G. (Host). (2006, November 18). A prairie home companion. [Radio broadcast]. Washington, DC: National Public Radio. Retrieved from http://prairiehome.publicradio.org/programs/ 2006/11/18/index.shtml

Parts of citation

Name of author, host or primary producer. (Role). (Date of broadcast). Name of radio program. [Radio broadcast]. City where distributor is located, State: Name of Distributor. Retrieved from Website URL

APA Manual 7.07 #89 (p. 279)

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Podcast

Example

Allington, A. (Producer). (2006, November 20). Invasive reeds help treat wastewater. The environment report. Podcast retrieved from http://www.glrc.org/mp3/2006/11/20/allington_112006.mp3

Parts of citation

Name of author, host or producer. (Role). (Podcast release date). Title of podcast. Title of program. Podcast retrieved from Podcast URL

APA Manual 7.07 #50 (p. 210)

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Sound recording

Example

Blakey, A. (1964). The Egyptian. Indestructible. Blue Note. [Sound recording]. Retrieved from http://bluenote.com/detail.asp?SelectionID=10257

Parts of citation

Name of composer or performer. (Recording release date). Title of individual work. Title of recording from which work comes. [Sound recording]. Retrieved from Recording URL

APA Manual 7.07 #50, 52 (p. 210)

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Television broadcast (webcast)

Example

Dentzer, S. (Host). (2006, November 29). Gene map of brain offers hope for Alzheimer's, autism. The news hour with Jim Lehrer. [Webcast]. Arlington, VA: PBS. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/ bb/health/july-dec06/brain_11-29.aspx

Parts of citation

Name of author, performer, or other relevant individual(s). (Function of author, performer, or other relevant individuals). (Broadcast date). Title of webcast. Title of program. [Webcast]. City where distributor is located, State: Name of distributor. Retrieved from Webcast URL

APA Manual 7.07 #50, 51 (p. 210)

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Interview

Example

Bateman, C. (2003, May). A conversation with Margaret Atwood. Bold Type. Retrieved from http://www.randomhouse.com/boldtype/0503/atwood/interview.aspx

Parts of citation

Name of interviewer. (Interview date). Title of interview. Title of website. Retrieved from Interview URL

APA Manual 7.01 #8, 11 (p. 200)

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