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Citing Legal Documents

Books

Book with one author

Example

Chang, J. (1991). Wild swans: Three daughters of China (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Year of publication). Title (Edition). City of publication, State: Name of publisher.

APA Manual 7.02 (p. 202)

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Book with an editor or translator (anthology, compilation, bibliography)

Example

Mariani, P. (Ed.). (1991). Critical fictions: The politics of imaginative writing. Seattle, WA: Bay Press.

Parts of citation

Name of editor. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title. City of publication, State: Name of publisher.

APA Manual 7.02 (p. 202)

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Book with multiple authors

Book with two authors

Example

Stuart, C., & Stuart, T. (1996). Africa's vanishing wildlife. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Parts of citation

Author's last name, A. A. & Author's last name, B. B. (Year of publication). Title (Edition). City of publication, State: Name of publisher.

Book with three authors

Example

Oliver, O. S., Chiras, D. D., & Reganold, J. P. (1998). Natural resource conservation (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Simon & Schuster.

Parts of citation

Author's last name, A. A., Author's last name, B. B., & Author's last name, C. C. (Year of publication). Title (Edition). City of publication, State: Name of publisher.

Book with more than seven authors

List the first six authors, then use an ellipsis (...) and the last author listed.

Parts of citation

Author's last name, A.A., Author's last name, B. B., Author's last name, C. C., Author's last name, D. D., Author's last name, E. E., Author's last name, F. F., ... Author's last name, G. G.. (Year of publication). Title (Edition). City of publication, State: Name of publisher.

APA Manual 7.01 and 7.02 (pp. 198, 202)

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Book with no author or editor

Alphabetize sources with no author or editor by the first significant word in title.

Example

The American heritage dictionary of the English language (3rd ed.). (1992). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Parts of citation

Title (Edition). (Year of publication). City of publication, State: Name of publisher.

APA Manual 7.02 (p. 203)

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Article or chapter in an edited book

Example

Ross, M. (1997). The death penalty is too expensive. In P. A. Winters (Ed.), The death penalty: Opposing viewpoints (pp. 134-138). San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press.

Parts of citation

Name of author of article. (Year of publication). Title of article. In Name of editor (Ed.), Title of book (page range of article). City of book publication, State: Name of publisher.

APA Manual 7.02 (p. 202)

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Dictionary entry or encyclopedia article

Entry or article with author

Example

Ford-Martin, P. A. (1999). Depressive disorders. In The Gale encyclopedia of medicine (Vol. 2, pp. 924-928). Detroit, MI: Gale.

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Year of publication). Title of entry. In Name of encyclopedia. (Edition number, Volume number, page range). City of publication, State: Name of publisher.

Entry or article with no author

Example

Puma. (1997). In New encyclopedia Britannica (15th ed., Vol. 9, p. 796). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Parts of citation

Title of entry. (Year of publication). In Name of encyclopedia. (Edition number, Volume number, page range). City of publication, State: Name of publisher.

APA Manual 7.02 (p. 203)

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Periodicals

Journal article

Journal with continuous pagination

The page numbers in one issue begin where the previous issue left off, so you do not need to include the issue number.

Examples

Dierker, L. C., Avenevoli, S., Stolar, M., & Merikangas, K. R. (2002). Smoking and depression: An examination of mechanisms of comorbidity. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 947-954. doi:10.1016/S0272-7358(99)00026-4

Smith, M. (1999). To speak of trees: Social constructivism, environmental values, and the future of deep ecology. Environmental Ethics, 21, 359-376.

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. doi:xxxx (if available)

Journal with non-continuous pagination

Each issue begins on page 1, so you must include both volume and issue number.

Example

Frank, T. H. (1995). The interpretation of limits: Doctors and novelists in the fiction of Philip Roth. Journal of Popular Culture, 8(4), 67-80. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3840.1995.676844.x

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page range. doi:xxxx (if available)

APA Manual 7.01 (pp. 198-199)

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Newspaper article

Example

Goldberg, C. (2000, February 26). Big gap in screening U.S. infants for hereditary ills. The New York Times, p. A1.

Meyerson, H. (2002, May 11). Early outs will cut DNR to the bone. The Grand Rapids Press, pp. D1, D5.

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, page range.

APA Manual 7.01 #10 (pp. 200)

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Magazine article

Examples

Bardach, J. (1988, March). Aquaculture: Moving from craft to industry. Environment, 30(20), 6-15.

Magnets that move moods: New treatment for depression. (2002, June 24). Newsweek, 139(25), 57.

Parts of citation

Name of author. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Magazine, volume number(issue number), page range.

APA Manual 7.01 (p.200)

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Article with no author

Alphabetize sources with no author or editor by the first significant word in the title.

Example

Ivory Crackdown. (2004, March 27). New Scientist, 181(2440), 4.

Parts of citation

Title of article. (Date of publication). Title of Magazine, volume number(issue number), page range.

APA Manual 7.01 #9 (p. 200)

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Media Sources

TV program

TV program or series

Example

Rakieten, E. (Executive Producer). (2006, November 21). The Oprah Winfrey show [Television series]. Chicago, IL: Harpo Productions.

Parts of citation

Name of originator or primary producer. (Function of originator or primary producer). (Date of broadcast). Name of television program or series. [Television broadcast or Television series]. City where distributor is located, State: Name of distributor.

TV series episode

Example

Nawaz, Z. (Writer) & Kennedy, M. (Director). (2007, February). The barrier. [Television series episode]. In S. Flanders (Producer), Little mosque on the prairie. Toronto, Canada: CBC.

Parts of citation

Name of writer (Writer) & Name of director (Director). (Date of broadcast). Title of episode. [Television series episode]. In Name of producer (Producer), Name of television series. City where distributor is located, State: Name of distributor.

APA Manual 7.07 (pp. 209-210)

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Radio program

Example

Smiley, T. (Host). (2004, July 1). Tavis Smiley. [Radio broadcast]. East Lansing, MI: WKAR.

Parts of citation

Name of originator or primary producer. (Function of originator or primary producer). (Date of broadcast). Name of radio program. [Radio broadcast]. City where distributor is located, State: Name of distributor.

APA Manual 7.07 (p. 209)

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Interview on TV or radio program

President George W. Bush was interviewed in the episode of Newshour with Jim Lehrer listed below. However, you do not need to mention the interview in your citation, just cite the episode. Then, in the text of your paper, you can mention that the interview occurred during this episode.

Example

Lehrer, J. (Host). (2007, January 16). Newshour with Jim Lehrer. [Television broadcast]. Washington, DC: PBS.

Parts of citation

Name of originator or primary producer. (Function of originator or primary producer). (Date of broadcast). Name of television program or series. [Television broadcast or Television series]. City where distributor is located, State: Name of distributor.

APA Manual 7.07 (p. 210)

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Interview

In-person, telephone, and email interviews which have not been archived are not considered recoverable data and therefore are not included in a references list. However, you will want to include relevant information in your in-text reference.

APA Manual 6.20 (p. 179)

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DVD, motion picture or video recording

Example

Arledge, B. (Writer/Producer). (1999). Surviving aids [Videotape]. South Burlington, VT: WGBH Boston Video.

Parts of citation

Name or originator or primary producer. (Function of originator or primary producer). (Year of release). Title of work [Motion picture, DVD, or Videotape]. Country of origin: Name of studio

APA Manual 7.07 (p. 209)

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Compact disc

CD sound recording

Example

Gilliam, J. (Author/Speaker). (2000). How to handle difficult people [CD]. Carol Stream, IL: Oasis Audio.

Parts of citation

Name of originators or primary contributors. (Function of originators or primary contributors). (Year of release). Title of recording [CD]. City where distributor is located, State: Name of distributor.

CD no sound - non periodical

Example

Choices [Compact disc]. (2006). Oroville, WA: Bridges Transitions.

Parts of citation

Title of CD [Compact disc]. (Year of publication). City of publication, State: Name of CD publisher.

APA Manual 7.07 (pp. 209-210)

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Audiocassette

Example

Christie, J. (Speaker). (1996). Sense and sensibility. [Cassette recording]. New York, NY: Penguin Audiobooks.

Parts of citation

Name of originators or primary contributors. (Function of originators or primary contributors). (Year of release.) Title of recording. [Cassette recording]. City where distributor is located, State: Name of distributor.

APA Manual 7.07 (pp. 209-210)

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Video game

Do not italicize software titles.

Example

Pokemon Mystery Dungeon: Blue Rescue Team. (2006). [PlayStation software]. Redmond, WA: Nintendo of America.

Parts of Citation

Author of game. Title of game. (Year of release.) [Medium]. City where publisher is located, State: Name of publisher.

APA Manual 7.07 (p. 210)

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Legal Documents

Michigan law (Michigan Compiled Laws Annotated)

Example

Safe Drinking Water Act. Mich. Comp. Laws Ann. 325.1007 (West 1999).

Parts of citation

Title of the act. MCLA abbreviated title. Section number. (Publisher year).

APA Manual Appendix A7.04#11 (p. 220); The Bluebook Rule 12.3.1; Table 1 (p. 215)

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Michigan Supreme Court case

Example

People v. Davis, 472 Mich. 156 (2005).

Parts of citation

First party v. Second party, Volume number Michigan Reports abbreviated title First page of case (year case decided).

APA Manual Appendix A7.03 #1 (p. 217); The Bluebook Rule 10; Table 1 (p. 215)

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Michigan Court of Appeals case

Example

Tuggle v. Department of State Police, 269 Mich App 657 (2005).

Parts of citation

First party v. Second party, Volume number Michigan Appeals Reports abbreviation First page of case (year case decided).

APA Manual Appendix A7.03 #7(p. 219); The Bluebook Rule 10; Table 1 (p. 215)

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Federal law (original version, as passed)

Example

Fair Credit and Charge Card Disclosure Act of 1988. Pub. L. 100-583. 3 Nov. 1988. Stat. 102.2960.

Parts of citation

Title of the law. Public law number. Date enacted. Statutes at Large cataloging number.

APA Manual Appendix A7.03 (p. 220); The Bluebook Rule 12.3.1

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Federal Court case

Example

United States Department of Defense v. Federal Labor Relations Authority. No 92-1223. Supreme Ct. of the US. 23 February 1994.

Parts of citation

Title of case. Number of the case. Name of court that decided the case. Date of decision.

APA Manual Appendix A7.03 #8 (p. 219); The Bluebook Rule 10

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