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Practice Test for PSYC 200 Program Final

1. In an experiment, the variable that is controlled or manipulated by the researcher is called the __________ variable.

A. dependent
B. independent
C. control
D. stimulus

2. A researcher wants to see if a protein-enriched diet will enhance the maze-running performance of rats. One group of rats is fed the high-protein diet for the duration of the study; the other group continues to receive ordinary rat chow. In this experiment, the diet fed to the two groups of rats is the __________ variable.

A. correlated
B. control
C. dependent
D. independent

3. The case study is a research method in which the investigator:

A. manipulates a single independent variable
B. observes behavior as it occurs in its natural environment
C. conducts an in-depth investigation of an individual subject
D. conducts an in-depth investigation of a single hypothesis

4. Variability refers to:

A. the degree of relationship between two variables
B. how much the scores in a data set depart from the mean score
C. the "typical" or "average" score in a data set
D. the probability that an outcome is due to chance

5. High scores on variable X are associated with high scores on variable Y and low scores on variable X are associated with low scores on variable Y. Hence, the correlation between variables X and Y will be:

A. negative
B. positive
C. zero
D. spurious

6. __________ statistics are used to interpret data and draw conclusions.

A. Descriptive
B. Prescriptive
C. Sampling
D. Inferential

7. An impulse moves from one neuron to another through the action of:

A. neurotransmitters
B. hormones
C. action potentials
D. neuromodulators

8. The area of the frontal lobe that plays an important role in the production of speech is called:

A. Wernicke's area
B. Broca's area
C. Cannon's area
D. Sperry's area

9. Which part of the brain seems to play a major role in the work of artists, architects, and engineers, who must rely heavily on visual-spatial skills?

A. the right hemisphere
B. the left hemisphere
C. cerebellum
D. corpus callosum

10. Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which:

A. responses come to be controlled by their consequences
B. an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others' behavior
C. an organism engages in a response that brings aversive stimulation to an end
D. a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to elicit a response that was originally elicited by another stimulus

11. The continued presentation of the CS without the UCS will result in the gradual disappearance of the CR. This phenomenon is known as:

A. inhibition
B. suppression
C. extinction
D. conditioned forgetting

12. Watson and Rayner (1920) conditioned "Little Albert" to fear white rats by banging a hammer on a steel bar as he played with a white rat. Later, it was discovered that Albert feared not only white rats, but white stuffed toys and Santa's beard as well. Albert's fear of these other objects can be attributed to:

A. acquisition
B. stimulus generalization
C. stimulus discrimination
D. an overactive imagination

13. Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which:

A. responses come to be controlled by their consequences
B. an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others' behavior
C. an organism engages in a response that brings aversive stimulation to an end
D. a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to elicit a response that was originally elicited by another stimulus

14. A child discovers that her classmates stop taunting her if she just ignores them. This is an example of:

A. shaping
B. acquisition
C. extinction
D. stimulus discrimination

15. Intermittent reinforcement occurs when:

A. some behaviors but not others are reinforced
B. no set schedule of reinforcement is used
C. a reinforcer is delivered every so often, regardless of the organism's responses
D. a designated response is reinforced only some of the time

16. Observational learning is a type of learning in which:

A. responses come to be controlled by their consequences
B. an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others' behavior
C. an organism engages in a response that brings aversive stimulation to an end
D. a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to elicit a response that was originally elicited by another stimulus

17. You are absorbed in reading your psychology text when the phone rings. After talking on the phone, you can't remember the last thing you read. This information was lost from __________ memory, because the phone conversation distracted you from __________ the information.

A. sensory; perceiving
B. short-term; rehearsing
C. long-term; rehearsing
D. long-term; retrieving

18. According to interference theory:

A. people forget information because of competition from other material
B. forgetting is due to ineffective encoding
C. the principal cause of forgetting should be the passage of time
D. the events that occur during the retention interval do not affect forgetting

19. Procedural memory:

A. is memory for factual information
B. is memory for actions, skills, and operations
C. is made up of chronological recollections of personal experiences
D. contains general knowledge that is not temporally dated

20. A primacy effect probably occurs because the initial items in a list:

A. can no longer be retrieved from sensory storage
B. are still available in short-term storage
C. have had the most opportunity for rehearsal
D. are paid less attention than later items

21. The work of researchers like Bartlett and Loftus on errors in memory suggests that memory is best viewed as:

A. a tape recording
B. storage on a computer disc
C. a literal record of events
D. a reconstruction of events or materials

22. If a test has good test-retest reliability:

A. there is a strong correlation between items on the test
B. it accurately measures what it says it measures
C. it can be used to predict future performance
D. the test yields similar scores if taken at two different times

23. If a test accurately measures what it was designed to measure, we would say that the test is:

A. valid
B. empirical
C. normative
D. consistent

24. Binet and Simon devised the first intelligence test in 1905 in order to:

A. predict the school performance of children
B. predict future life success
C. provide support for the belief that intelligence is genetically determined
D.  provide support for the belief that intelligence is environmentally determined

25. Since IQ scores are assumed to be normally distributed, an IQ score of 100 would put you:

A. to the left of the center of the normal curve
B. at the center of the normal curve
C. to the right of the center of the normal curve
D. somewhere on the curve, your exact location depending on the performance of others taking the test with you

26. Research on gifted individuals have shown that gifted children:

A. tend to be below average in physical and emotional health
B. tend to be above average in physical and emotional health
C. become adults who are no more successful than average
D. tend to conform to society?s traditional view of the gifted

27. Developmental psychology is primarily concerned with:

A. an analysis of individual differences in behavior
B. an analysis of species differences in behavior
C. the role of learning in behavior
D. those aspects of behavior that change over the lifespan
 

28. The close, emotional bond of affection between an infant and its caregiver is called:

A. attachment
B. dependency
C. imprinting
D. identification

 
29. One-year-old Tommy is extremely distressed whenever his mother leaves him, yet resists her attempts to comfort him when she returns. Tommy probably has ___________ to his mother.

A. no attachment
B. a secure attachment
C. an anxious-ambivalent attachment
D. an avoidant attachment

30. To Piaget, cognitive development involves:

A. stages that are characterized by fundamentally different thought processes
B. increases in the quantity, but not the quality, of knowledge with age
C. passive reception of environmental stimuli
D. all of the above

31. According to Piaget, during the formal operations period of cognitive development, children begin to:

A. acquire the concept of conservation
B. understand the nature of hierarchical classification
C. think primarily in terms of concrete objects or situations
D. think in terms of abstract principles and hypothetical possibilities

32. In Erikson's theory, the psychosocial crisis during adolescence is:

A. identity versus confusion
B. generativity versus self-absorption
C. industry versus inferiority
D. intimacy versus isolation

33. According to Allport, most of us can be described by five to ten influential but not overwhelming:

A. central traits
B. cardinal traits
C. secondary traits
D. primary traits

34. Failure to resolve conflict at a particular stage of psychosexual development may lead to failure to move forward psychologically, a phenomenon that Freud called:

A. fixation
B. displacement
C. reciprocal determinism
D. compensation

35. Howard sets extremely high standards for both himself and others. He tends to be rigid and inflexible and rarely allows himself to enjoy life. Freud would probably conclude that Howard is dominated by:

A. his superego
B. his id
C. his ego
D. penis envy

36. According to Carl Rogers, if your self-concept is reasonably accurate, it is said to be:

A. congruent
B. self-actualized
C. extraverted
D. valid

37. A friend tells you that he recently responded to a personality inventory with about 550 items that indicated that his level of depression was above normal. He probably took:

A. the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
B. Cattell's 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire
C. the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule
D. the Power Motivation Scale

38. The Thematic Apperception Test is composed of:

A. inkblots
B. forced-choice items
C. ambiguous pictures
D. true-false items

39. Jack thinks constantly about dirt and germs. He washes his hands hundreds of times a day. Jack is most likely suffering from:

A. hypochondriasis
B. phobic disorder
C. somatization disorder
D. obsessive-compulsive disorder

40. George experiences episodes of extreme euphoria, which are always followed by episodes of severe depression. George is experiencing:

A. cyclothymic disorder
B. major depression
C. a unipolar disorder
D. a bipolar mood disorder

41. Mary believes that while she sleeps at night, space creatures are attacking her and invading her uterus, where they will multiply until they are ready to take over the world. Mary was chosen for this task, she believes, because she is the only one with the power to help the space creatures succeed. Mary would most likely be diagnosed as __________ schizophrenic.

A. paranoid
B. catatonic
C. disorganized
D. undifferentiated

42. Insanity:

A. is a psychiatric diagnosis
B. is a legal concept
C. exists when a mental disorder makes a person unable to distinguish right from wrong
D. b and c

43. The goal of behavior therapy is to:

A. identify the early childhood unconscious conflicts that are the source of the client's symptoms
B. change the client's thought patterns so that negative emotions can be controlled
C. alter the frequency of specific problematic responses by using conditioning techniques
D. alter the client's brain chemistry by prescribing specific drugs

44. Transference:

A. occurs when the client makes conscious attempts to hinder the progress of therapy
B. refers to the client's redirection toward the therapist of unconscious emotional reactions originally felt toward others
C. involves transferring memories of past traumatic experiences to current dreams
D. occurs when the therapist treats the client as if the client was an important authority figure
 

45. Systematic desensitization is particularly effective for the treatment of __________ disorders.

A. generalized anxiety
B. panic
C. obsessive-compulsive
D. phobic

46. Putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one's identity in terms of the groups one belongs to is called:

A. collectivism
B. functionalism
C. individualism
D. attributionism

47. Cognitive dissonance:

A. is a state of tension produced when related cognitions are inconsistent
B. is a feeling of discomfort experienced by receivers of persuasive communications
C. is a feeling of guilt produced by engaging in counterattitudinal behavior
D. occurs only when cognitions are unrelated to each other
 

48. Widely held beliefs about groups of people based on their group membership defines:

A. cognitive structuring
B. cultural direction
C. stereotypes
D. schematizing

49. In Sternberg?s triangular theory of love, __________ refers to an intention to maintain a relationship in spite of the difficulties and costs that may arise.

A. commitment
B. passion
C. consummation
D. secureness

50. Evidence from numerous studies of the bystander effect suggests that:

A. it is a widespread phenomenon
B. it is limited to contrived laboratory situations
C. it occurs only in urban ghetto areas
D. there is much truth to the old saying that "there is safety in numbers"


Created on August 20, 2001; Last updated on August 20, 2001 by Mark D. Kelland, Ph.D., Assoc. Professor
Copyright 2001 by Lansing Community College; All rights reserved

          Answers to Practice Final Exam

1.  B

2.  D

3.  C

4.  B

5.  B

6.  D

7.  A

8.  B

9.  A

10.  D

11.  C

12.  B

13.  A

14.  C

15.  D

16.  B

17.  B

18.  A

19.  B

20.  C

21.  D

22.  D

23.  A

24.  A

25.  B

26.  B

27.  D

28.  A

29.  C

30.  A

31.  D

32.  A

33.  A

34.  A

35.  A

36.  A

37.  A

38.  C

39.  D

40.  D

41.  A

42.  D

43.  C

44.  B

45.  D

46.  A

47.  C

48.  C

49.  A

50.  A

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